About

Who was… Kathleen Carpenter?

Featured

Catherine Duigan explores the life and times of Dr Kathleen Carpenter (1891–1970), a pioneering scientist known as ‘the mother of freshwater ecology’

Photos of Kathleen courtesy of the Aberystwyth University Archives.

The Biologist 65(3) p22-25

Kathleen Edithe Zimmermann was born on March 24 1891 in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. Her mother was Victoria Boor from Cambridgeshire, while her father, Francis Frederick Zimmermann, was born in Germany. They had one son and five daughters.

Francis Zimmermann was a successful businessman and expert in international markets, and in his obituary his youngest child, Kathleen, was described as “perhaps the most remarkable daughter”. Fortunately, he believed in education for his daughters and Kathleen is associated with some of the most progressive universities, starting with University College of Wales (UCW) Aberystwyth in September 1907.

In its founding charter, Aberystwyth specified equal access to degrees and was one of the first universities to provide all-female accommodation. Kathleen was awarded a BSc in 1910 and remained there to continue postgraduate studies.

In the 1911 census of Alexandra Hall, Kathleen is listed as an ‘inmate’ alongside women drawn mainly from England and Wales. Kathleen would have studied and worked in Old College and walked the length of the Prom every day.

She began comprehensive British freshwater biology investigations at Aberystwyth. Her seminal studies focused on the environmental impact of metal pollution on Cardiganshire streams.

Lead and zinc have been mined in Cardiganshire since the reign of Elizabeth I, and links were quickly made between mine waste water and ecological damage. Following a flood, cattle died after eating contaminated grass in the Ystwyth valley, while the 1861 Salmon Fisheries Enquiry reported “a total extinction of animal life” in the rivers Rheidol and Ystwyth.

KC welshminepollution2

Metal and coal mining has had enormous environmental impact in Wales.

The National Library of Wales holds two fragile folders of Kathleen’s type-written examination papers, including a letter that refers to an £8 cheque to cover the MSc fee. The PhD folder has a hand-drawn, watercoloured map of her study area, which focused on rivers around Aberystwyth, but extended to the relatively unpolluted rivers Teifi and Dyfi. It shows that she covered a relatively large area at a time when cars were starting to become common.

Her sampling protocol demonstrated a meticulous approach, collecting organisms from under stones and in sediment, scraped from vegetation and from the water surface. In this way, she produced the first detailed assessment of British running water fauna, including dividing the comprehensive species lists into ecological types. Due to changes in the economic viability of local mines, she was able to study the biological impact of the commencement of mining and the recovery after closure.

In studies in the headwaters of the Teifi, she discovered that within a year of a mine recommencing activities in 1924, the mollusc Ancylus fluviatilis and Trichoptera larvae had disappeared. She also demonstrated experimentally the toxic effects of metallic salts on minnows, trout and sticklebacks, finding that colloidal precipitate of heavy metal formed on the gills, causing death by suffocation.

In 1914, there were almost 9,000 troops in and around Aberystwyth, plus refugees and convalescing soldiers. In one incident, a mob ran a German lecturer out of town. At this time of growing community tensions, Kathleen decided to change her name from Zimmermann to Carpenter (the English translation of the German word). However, she must have also recognised the opportunities opening up to women: during World War I, women students were in the majority at Aberystwyth, leading to the accusation of “petticoat government” of college committees.

Kathleen sailed across the Atlantic several times to Quebec, Montreal and New York. Travel records reveal she was single, 5 feet 5 inches tall, had brown eyes and was in good health. After submitting her MSc in 1923, Kathleen attended the Association of the Advancement of Science Conference in Toronto. The ship’s passenger list read like a Who’s Who of eminent male scientists.

By 1927, her scientific reputation was secure, as a conference press report stated “Zoology has an eminent sponsor in Dr Kathleen Carpenter” and referred to the use of her research by a river pollution committee. Her subsequent paper in Nature recorded Ice Age relic species in British streams.

Her textbook Life in Inland Waters (dedicated to her father) was published in 1928. This first freshwater ecology textbook in English is informed with illustrations, data and inferences made from Welsh waters, and has a high dependence on European and American scientific literature. The book was commissioned by British evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley because freshwater biology was considered neglected and eclipsed by marine biology.

Kathleen’s passion for freshwater ecosystems sings from the poetic description of freshwater life in the author’s preface. She writes “it is a world of infinite beauty, infinite variety, infinite charm; a world, too, which lies freely open for our exploration, and yet how many, even of professed biologists, have penetrated beyond its threshold.” The book contains more than 90 line drawings of invertebrates, which presumably she enjoyed drawing herself.

The publication of her textbook opened a door for her to work in the US, starting with Illinois State University, where she carried out further research on metal toxicity in fish. Here, she was a guest of honour at a meeting of the American Association of University Women, taking tea and talking about British universities.

Her next position was at Radcliffe College, which was developed for the education of women who had been trying to gain access to Harvard. In a presidential report from 1929–1930, Ada Comstock talked about the growing importance of the graduate school with the list of students coming from abroad, including Kathleen, growing more impressive: “… each of them, though they are all comparatively young women, has made herself widely known as a productive scholar in her field…the pride of a graduate school.”

Kathleen’s first teaching appointment was at Washington College, Maryland, on Chesapeake Bay, a classic American liberal arts college. At this time, she was a member of the Sigma Delta Epsilon Society, now known as Graduate Women in Science. Clearly appreciated by her students, she was also elected by undergraduate students to the scholastic Honor Society.

World War II overshadows Kathleen’s final contributions. In the mid-1930s, she returned to the UK to work at Liverpool University, where she carried out one of the first detailed studies of the diet of young salmon in the River Dee. At a conference in 1939, she referred to a recently spent male salmon parr that had eaten eggs likely to be his offspring, which generated newspaper headlines about “cannibal salmon”, alongside reports of increasing political tensions.

The only known personal description of Kathleen came from a book by war correspondent Michael Moynihan. She leaps out of the first line: “Kathleen Carpenter came unexpectedly to tea the Sunday war was declared.” He went on to describe a formidable character with thick-lensed glasses, prone to making personal remarks, but also pausing conversation to listen to a blackbird singing.

“It was the study of freshwater fish that kept her from despair,” he wrote.

In 1944, Professor Lily Newton at Aberystwyth carried out a review of the mine pollution of the rivers of West Wales. In it, she states the review was produced from various scattered sources and that records of the previous 20 years of research were destroyed by enemy action. There is no evidence of Kathleen’s involvement, suggesting her scientific career ended abruptly during World War II. She died in Cheltenham in 1970, leaving only a few thousand pounds.

Kathleen’s groundbreaking work on pollution is still highly relevant in the context of natural resource management in Wales, but our appreciation of this mine legacy is more complex.

KC welshminepollution

There are 1,300 abandoned metal mines in Wales that have been estimated to impact more than 200km of river

Abandoned metal mines support Calaminarian grassland of European conservation importance, including plants, mosses, liverworts and lichens that have evolved to grow on contaminated soil – a genetic resource for bioremediation and bio-mining. Today, 1,300 mines impact over 200km of rivers in Wales. Nine of the 10 catchments most polluted by abandoned mines in the UK are in Wales. Recent research revealed that in 2012 contaminated silage led to cattle mortality and the remobilisation of metallic sediments is likely to increase during extreme weather events.

Life in Inland Waters concludes with an analysis of the importance of fresh water for human society and the impact of environmental pressures traced back to the Industrial Revolution. As a consequence, the longevity of the mine pollution legacy in Wales would be understood by Kathleen today.

Her research has also contributed to the key conservation ideas and science developed during the last century, including using chemistry and biology to assess water quality. Before ecosystem services thinking, she justified the importance of fresh waters in a socioeconomic context. At the same time, she acknowledged that nature is important in its own right – to be enjoyed and protected. Intuitively, she knew interactions with nature were important for “health and a quiet mind”.

Finally, her research demonstrated the resilience of Welsh rivers: they can recover from pollution. Above all, she was an absolute champion of a scientific approach to environmental management.

Fieldwork finery

Aberystwyth’s literature and debating society in 1910, with Kathleen Carpenter front, second from left                                                                                                                                         

What did Kathleen wear to do fieldwork? Research has shown that early women scientists in the US were constrained by the social expectation of men in terms of keeping covered (i.e. long sleeves, hats), but they were also restricted by long skirts.2 By 1910 in the US, corsets were abandoned for bloomers and loose fitting shirts, and even swimsuits. In Britain during the First World War, women adopted practical working clothes, including trousers.
A photograph from Aberystwyth University archives provides some clues to the clothing worn by Kathleen and her contemporaries (see p23). Both the men and women are wearing formal clothes. Kathleen is wearing a lace collar and a very formal sculpted dress. In contrast, her female contemporary has a looser-fitting garment. Such images provide evidence of an age of transition in clothing for a young woman scientist.

Researching a role model

Researching the life of Kathleen Carpenter began as a historical research project with my husband, Dr Warren Kovach. An invitation to give a presentation on International Women’s Day (IWD) made me think about the specific challenges she would have faced as an early woman scientist. Kathleen was fortunate to live at a time when educational opportunities, social change and the evolution of women’s clothing made it possible to undertake scientific fieldwork.

However, she also faced other gender parity challenges that are directly related to the IWD 2018 theme #PressForProgress, including progressing in academia. The clothing issue still has resonance today – personal protective wear needs to be specifically designed for women, as discomfort in the field will reduce productivity. In addition, there are still parts of the world where women have to be covered to conform to social expectations.

Kathleen was passionate about science and this characteristic was part of her approach to communication. From an early stage, she was an active member of scientific societies and organisations supporting the advancement of women in science. She travelled, took risks, spoke several languages and was a devoted teacher appreciated by her students.

Without doubt, her career can be considered an important part of the collective efforts of women to make progress in the biosciences. To tell the story of one of my sister freshwater biologists has become a labour of love and a welcome obligation[1].

References
1) A complete bibliography for Kathleen Carpenter can be found on her Wikipedia page: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathleen_E._Carpenter
2) Campbell Warner, P. & Ewing, M.S. Wading in the Water: Women Aquatic Biologists Coping with Clothing, 1877–1945. BioScience 52, 97–104 (2002).



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: August 09, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:    https://thebiologist.rsb.org.uk/biologist/158-biologist/features/1968-who-was-kathleen-carpenter

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



WE ARE THE 0.1%: WHY THE AD WORLD NEEDS MORE FEMALE FOUNDERS | Mira Kaddoura | AdAge

Featured

     By Mira Kaddoura. Published on June 18, 2018.

 Credit:  Jacob Hinmon

In a post-Gustavo Martinez, #metoo age, we still see headlines that proclaim that advertising remains a boys’ club – to which every semi-sentient being says, “Well, no shit.” One CEO’s fall from grace is not going to change a culture that has always favored men over women. But we – the women in this industry who know it can rise to become so much more – have the power to disrupt this generations-old pattern by becoming our own bosses and crafting a better version of advertising.

Change within the industry is coming slowly. Leaders within agencies pat themselves on the back for baby steps like increasing paid time off for new moms even while female employees make half of what their male colleagues earn. Advertising gets away with these warm and fuzzy gestures in part because it’s not being penalized for continuing with the status quo.

Women who start agencies can change that. We need more of them.

For starters, it’s what brands need

By definition, women who start agencies are iconoclasts. We’re doing something radically different than the industry standard.

Brands should be clamoring for agencies like ours, which aren’t tied down by a traditional shop’s bureaucracy and politics. After all, to cut through the saturated, noisy landscape and capture the attention of everyday Americans – who, estimates suggest, see and hear more than 5,000 ads a day – brands need clarity of vision and execution.

Female leaders tend to prioritize hiring people from a variety of colors, ethnicities and backgrounds, including working moms, nerds and introverts. These diverse perspectives help brands connect with populations traditional advertising has ignored and talked down to – like women, who account for 85 percent of the country’s purchasing power.

Brands pay lip service to diversity and inclusion, but money talks: They continue to award work to business-as-usual agencies, and to no one’s surprise, advertising continues on its misogynistic path.

It’s time to call out brands for their role in changing the status quo – and getting the unconventional thinking they so desperately crave. The more brands consider and hire women-founded agencies, the more women will make the leap to start their own shops, and the more positive change we’ll see in advertising.

Obstacles to female founders

According to Fast Company, nearly half of women dream of starting their own business but only 12 percent think it’s even possible, and an even smaller smidgen actually do it. The trickle of female ad entrepreneurs means we have too few examples to look to (and veterans to ask questions of). Is it any wonder, then, that only 0.1 percent of the ad agencies in the U.S. with national or international accounts are founded by women?

Men, on the other hand, witness plenty of role models who strike out on their own. What’s more, I’ve watched these founders take along male colleagues much more often than bringing along women. The pattern creates an exclusive treadmill to the top.

Access to funding also restricts female entrepreneurs. In 2017, women received just 2 percent of all the funds flowing from venture capital investors. The share drops close to zero for women of color.

I used to push back against calling myself out as a woman, partly because my family supported my ambition and provided plenty of female role models. Take, for example, my great-aunt, who earned her PhD from the University of Cairo in 1950 when female enrollment was just 1 percent. She then went on to become not only the first female professor of history at the Lebanese University, but the first female Dean of the faculty of Arts and Sciences in 1971 – proving we don’t have to limit our dreams or underestimate our power to get shit done.

That’s true, but there is also power in owning our woman-ness and the unique perspective we bring to the business. It’s past time to play our woman card – in part because it makes good business sense.

Consider, for example, that when there are more women in top-management positions, the company tends to earn more. Research on more than 20,000 publicly traded companies showed that organizations with at least 30 percent of leadership roles filled by women saw an average of 6 percent increase in profits. And startups with at least one female founder perform more than 60 percent better than those with an all-male team.

Own your crazy

That initial leap away from a job that pays the water bill and student loans and childcare is terrifying—but we women make it way scarier than it needs to be. After all, you’re already wearing a parachute.

That parachute is you. Women have been conditioned to downplay their own strength – by letting male colleagues float risky ideas because they’re less likely to get shot down, or by enduring repeated micro-aggressions, like directing the only woman in the room to take meeting notes or fetch afternoon cold brew.

Not everyone is going to quit to found her own agency (although I wish a lot more women would do just that). But regardless of where you are in your career, you can be a catalyst for change.

So let’s own this. Starting with women who have already founded their own agencies: It’s time we founders speak up and lend our own support to the women still grinding in the agencies that they, too, can become the leaders this industry needs.

Mira Kaddoura is the founder and ECD of agency Red & Co.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: July 15, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:    https://adage.com/article/agencies/world-female-agency-founders/313902

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Generous mentor to two generations of scientists and physicians | Ian Gust and Margery Kennett | The Age

Featured
By Ian Gust and Margery Kennett

June 15, 2020 — 1.31pm

Noreen Lehmann 1932-2020

Noreen Lehmann, the most senior of a group of talented women who made the Fairfield Hospital virus laboratory a powerhouse in the 1970s and 1980s, has died in Ballarat. Her lifetime and career spanned modern clinical virology from the isolation of the influenza virus to the current pandemic.

The second of four daughters from a wheat farming family in the Wimmera, Noreen was schooled in Horsham and, after completing year 12, worked as a technician in the pathology department of the Wimmera Base Hospital, where her supervisor, recognising her talent, suggested she go to university, which she did.

After graduating in science from the University of Melbourne in 1957 she was recruited by Allan Ferris, head of the pathology laboratory at Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital, to join Fred Lewis and Merren Nelson in the epidemiological research unit, which had been recently established to study the role of virus infections in the community.

Although infections were common and the wards of the hospital contained many patients with these diseases, the techniques for establishing a diagnosis were slow and while the data generated was of interest to epidemiologists and public health workers, it was rarely of help to the patient or their physician.

As there was no commercial incentive for industry, in the 1960s and 1970s much of the equipment and most of the reagents used in virology laboratories was fabricated or developed in house.

Infections were confirmed by obtaining a throat swab or sample of cerebrospinal fluid or faeces from the patient and isolating the causative agent in cell culture or embryonated eggs or demonstrating a rising titre of antibodies in serum samples collected 10-14 days apart.

Noreen Lehmann.
Noreen Lehmann.

Preparing and maintaining cell cultures from the kidneys of monkeys which had been used by CSL for production and testing of the Salk polio vaccine, human kidneys removed during surgery or amniotic cells from discarded placentas and maintaining their viability for weeks, in media containing foetal calf serum collected from local abattoirs was not for the squeamish and was part science and part art. It favoured those with green fingers of which Noreen was one. Her skills in inoculating the amniotic and allantoic cavities or chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs, establishing various cell types in culture and coaxing difficult viruses to grown, were legendary.

In the 1960s together with Fred Lewis and Margery Kennett, she was responsible for isolating a wide range of respiratory and enteric viruses as well as the viruses responsible for many of the infectious rashes of childhood and studying their relevance both in hospitalised patients and children in the community followed prospectively.

She was the first person in Australia to isolate rubella virus in cell culture and to establish a sensitive assay for antibodies. Because of the serious effects that rubella infection could have on the unborn foetus, this assay became widely used for screening pregnant women and for diagnosing suspicious rashes, creating a new market for industry.

As the number of suppliers proliferated and the tests begun to be performed in general laboratories, sometimes by people without specialist training, concerns arose about the reliability of the results being generated.

With the help of Joc Forsyth, of the microbiological diagnostic unit at the University of Melbourne, Noreen assembled a panel of sera which was distributed, under code, to every laboratory in Victoria performing the test.

When the results were analysed they showed a wide discrepancy in the sensitivity and specificity of the assays being employed and considerable variations in the results being reported by different laboratories. This led to certain assays being preferred and a demand for regular quality assurance panels, which Noreen’s laboratory provided for many years.

In 1974 when a severe outbreak of Murray Valley encephalitis occurred in northern Victoria, killing several people and leaving many others severely damaged, Noreen was able to confirm the diagnosis by isolating the virus in embryonated eggs.

Despite these achievements Noreen’s most important contribution was probably in the field of viral hepatitis. In the early 1970s when Ron Lucas, Ian Gust and Jacov Kaldor began their studies of the epidemiology and natural history of these diseases using sera collected from the hundreds of patients admitted to Fairfield every year, the techniques available for detecting viral antigens and antibodies were relatively crude and insensitive.

Impressed by the impact that radioimmunoassays were having in the management of patients with endocrinological disease, with the help of Colin Johnson’s team at Prince Henry’s Hospital, Noreen developed a radio immunoprecipitation assay for hepatitis B antibodies which enabled the group to study the epidemiology, mode of spread and natural history of this infection in Australia, South-East Asia and the western Pacific. Later, the same approach was used for detection of total and class specific antibodies to hepatitis A with similar outcomes.

Perhaps her most lasting achievement came about by coincidence. When Ian Gust undertook a sabbatical year at the National Institutes of Health in 1976 he asked Noreen to select faecal samples from patients with community acquired HA that could be used to infect marmosets to determine whether there were any differences in Australian and American strains of the virus.

Noreen chose samples from a family outbreak in an unsewered outer suburb. By chance one of these contained a high titre of virus which enabled the NIH team to isolate the virus in cell culture, attenuate it by repeated passage and characterise the molecular basis for the attenuation. After demonstrating that the attenuated virus could protect marmosets and chimpanzees against challenge with wild HAV, NIH licensed the strain to Glaxo Smith Kline where it became the basis of the world’s first licensed hepatitis A vaccine, which has been now administered to hundreds of millions of people with dramatic effect.

Although often prickly, Noreen was a generous mentor to two generations of scientists and physicians, who both respected and were terrified of her. Known as Auntie Nor and having no family of her own, Noreen was particularly generous to young colleagues especially those coming from overseas or interstate for whom she supplied encouragement, the use of her home in Reservoir and later Research, sometimes supporting them financially until they found their feet.

Noreen was a woman of considerable presence; tall, strongly built with a farmer’s hands, a no-nonsense attitude and a formidable temper when aroused. She lived through an exciting period, which saw her clinical virology evolve from a cottage industry to a mainstream discipline and many of diseases which were scourges in her youth, brought under control, leading eventually to the closure of the institution in which she spent her entire career.

She saw the tiny group that she joined in 1958 become a major enterprise, spawn not only the virology section of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, several WHO collaborating centres, the Burnet Institute and the National Aids Reference Laboratory.

After her retirement she returned to the Wimmera, where she continued to pursue her passions for gardening and handicrafts.

Her passing marks the end of an era. We will not see her like again.

Ian Gust and Margery Kennett were friends and colleagues.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: July 13, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:    https://www.theage.com.au/national/generous-mentor-to-two-generations-of-scientists-and-physicians-20200615-p552q2.html

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



How to mentor and support other women — and help them succeed | Pat Mitchell | TED Talks

Featured

Mar 6, 2020 / Pat Mitchell

Glenn HarveyPat Mitchell is a serial ceiling smasher: She was the first female president of CNN Productions and PBS and the first woman to own and host a nationally syndicated daily talk show. She is also a passionate mentor, and here, she offers practical advice on how to best empower other women.I’m quite sure I never heard the word “mentor” while growing up in the fifties in small-town Georgia, but luckily, Mrs. Reid, my eighth-grade English teacher, was the mentor who changed the direction of my life. I’ve likewise taken my responsibility to mentor other women — and a few men — quite seriously. In fact, as I tell the organizations with which I consult on the role of women in business, I believe mentoring is one of the strategies that can close the gender gap in leadership in this country and around the world.Mentoring is one lever we can activate to advance more women in their work, to help them gain access to capital and economic opportunities they might otherwise miss, and to be better prepared for opportunities when they come. I believe that one of the responsibilities of being a woman who is committed to working toward a more just world is being willing to be a mentor when and where needed. All of us — mentees and mentors — are dangerous women in the making or already boldly declared to be in the sisterhood. We need the support of each other at a fundamental level that goes beyond mentoring and even beyond sponsorship.

“Sponsors” are what leading Morgan Stanley banker Carla Harris calls colleagues inside organizations who will speak up for others, who are prepared to be more than a mentor.

Sponsors are our representatives, our agents, our committed advocates.Harris has been using her sphere of influence and her powerful woman’s voice to call for sponsors as well as mentors. “Mentoring,” she says, “won’t be enough to ensure that you’ll get the promotion or the raise you deserve. We need sponsors.” I recommend Harris’s TED Talk (watch it here) for more instructions on how to be a sponsor and how to get one.

These days, I’m committed to being a mentor and a sponsor for other women as a big part of engaging further with my passion and purpose.

How can you be a great mentor? Let me share with you some straightforward, how-to advice from my personal experiences as both.

Being a mentor means matching your skills and interests

Check in with yourself before accepting a mentee. Do you have the right skills to help this person, or will you be running yourself ragged trying to find the answers to her questions? Are you genuinely interested in what your mentee is trying to achieve? If someone looks good on paper but the face-to-face meeting leaves you cold, you’re allowed to say, “I don’t think I’m the right person to help you.” Why waste the mentee’s time with a half-hearted, less connected, or less informed mentorship? Find someone who makes the experience mutually rewarding.

Being a mentor takes time

It’s important to specify your preferred way of connecting (phone, Skype, email, in person, etc.), as well as when and how often you’re available to meet with your mentee. Are you talking about a few meetings — or a long-term mentoring relationship that could last months or even years? This is a chance to set clear boundaries. If you don’t enforce your boundaries, mentoring can quickly become a time suck that leaves you feeling resentful instead of empowered.

Juliet Asante was one of the first mentees assigned to me when I agreed to be a mentor in a program launched jointly by Fortune’s Most Powerful Women conference, the Vital Voices Global Partnership, and the State Department. Juliet was a Ghanaian television and film personality who owned her own production company and wanted to learn how to grow her business. This seemed like a good match for my background.

The first time we met, Juliet set down in front of me a single-spaced list of names that covered both sides of a sheet of paper. “During our work together, I would like to meet these people in the United States,” she told me. The list started with Obama and ended with Oprah! How could I not love that chutzpah and confidence?

That began what became a two-year official mentoring relationship, with Juliet coming to New York once a month. We’d talk through specific challenges in managing her production company. I arranged for her to meet with people on her list, walking her through every step so she could make the most of the often-limited time, and I reached out to each professional connection to give them a heads up.

In some instances, Juliet and I rehearsed the meeting beforehand, and I changed her script if it was presumptuous or didn’t indicate enough understanding about this person’s scope of experience or responsibilities. We reviewed the background of every person she was meeting, looking for how Juliet could connect so the meeting would have shared value and the colleague who’d agreed to give up their time might also learn something new or gain a new perspective.

Eventually, I arranged for Juliet to meet and spend time with nearly everyone on her list. Even President Obama, when she was invited to a White House event to recognize this special State Department mentoring program. Oprah was a bigger challenge. We lucked out — Oprah had just established the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls, her school in South Africa, and she was interested in Juliet’s perspective on the school. They had a productive conversation, although Oprah declined to be on Juliet’s Ghanaian television program. She did agree to a photograph that Juliet circulated on social media and elevated her following.

Relying on my contacts, connections and friends to supplement in areas where my advice is more limited is always a part of my mentoring process. In Juliet’s case, it became an easier decision to connect her with helpful friends and colleagues because I took the time to develop a relationship with her, got a solid sense of her abilities and work ethic, and felt confident that the connection would benefit both parties and Juliet would treat the introduction with the respect it deserved.

Like me, many of you have probably spent years building strong relationships with others. These are your gold; protect them. I had to rein in Juliet’s ambitions and expectations once or twice, such as her request to meet Warren Buffett. You’re allowed to enforce a boundary and say no.

Being a mentor is about suggesting, not instructing

Resist the urge to provide direct advice. Instead, offer supportive advice so that your mentee has the information to make her own decisions, which she’ll then be able to stand by with greater confidence.

Catalina Escobar came through the same mentorship program as Juliet. Catalina had a foundation committed to ending the cycle of violence, unwanted teen pregnancies, and endemic and intergenerational poverty in her home country of Colombia. She’d already served thousands of girls by the time we met.

Catalina wanted specific mentoring on how to raise awareness of the challenges in her country so she could expand her programs to other countries and become a global leader for change. We made a plan to get her a speaking coach so she could put herself forward at global conferences on women and girls. I took her to conferences and introduced her to people, and she began to plan a conference of her own called “Women Working for the World”. It was successful as a fundraiser for her foundation and as a global gathering of women. Now in its fifth year, it has become a standard-bearer for women coming together to share best practices, to form collaborations across borders, and to support women working for a better world.

Catalina didn’t need a typical mentor because she’d already created a foundation, shaped a successful intervention, and proven that her model worked with positive outcomes. What she needed — and this is often the case — were outside perspectives on how to raise awareness and funding, which I was able to provide.

Being a mentor is about asking smart questions, not having all the answers

You will help your mentee more by listening closely and asking questions than by having the answer for everything. I learned this when one mentee spoke up at one of our meetings. “Could you please ask all the questions instead of me?” she said.

“Why?” I asked, a bit taken aback.

“Because I need to know what questions to ask,” she explained. “I can google the answers.”

I see my job as a mentor to help my mentee find her own answers. I’ll walk her through the list of questions she’ll need to ask, problems she’ll need to address, and people she’ll need to talk to. I want to empower her to have the confidence that she can figure it all out, not spoon-feed her the answers.

Not all mentorship ends with a sense of satisfaction 

Sometimes, mentoring relationships end in frustration. You pour your heart and soul into mentoring someone, and their project doesn’t get off the ground. Or, the two of you never gel, you hear from others that your mentee overstepped, or you’re not able to provide enough of what your mentee wants or needs.

It happens. And when it does, try to resist the urge to fix it by putting more time and effort into it. Instead, be gracious and say: “I’m so sorry, but I’ve come to the end of what I can offer you.” The more experience I gain as a mentor, the sooner I realize that a particular mentee-mentor relationship isn’t going to be productive or positive, and the sooner I can tactfully pull the plug.

You’re a mentor, not a mother 

It’s important to remember that mentees are not your children and mentors are not therapists. This was the hardest lesson for me, because I do tend to fall a bit in love with all my mentees. But I’ve learned to keep marriages and personal relationships off-limits — unless they’re related to their business or social enterprise. Above all, I try to be clear about what I have time to do and what I cannot take on.

As a mother and grandmother, I have to resist mothering because when I don’t, the outcome is a blurring of roles and responsibilities. This hurts my mentee and degrades her sense of agency and accountability. And it hurts me because it takes an emotional toll and eats up a lot of my psychic energy.

Being a mentor can result in lifelong relationships that continue to nurture and empower 

It’s not uncommon for mentors and mentees to become collaborators. Courtney Martin is a case in point. I recently led a discussion with Courtney on inclusive leadership at the Makers Conference, the annual gathering whose mission is to lead the modern feminist movement to bring women together across all walks of life, in all industries, to advance the agenda of achieving true equality. I’ve worked with her to curate and host sessions at several TEDWomen conferences, and our StoryCorps conversation about our relationship was one of the most emotionally satisfying experiences of my life.

Sitting in that small room with a mic between us, sharing what we had meant to each other, tears and laughter flowed along with the memories of times shared and differences made in each other’s lives because we came to know each other — first as mentee/mentor but very quickly and very importantly as friends bound by mutual respect and admiration. This is what good mentoring is all about.

Excerpted with permission from the new book Becoming a Dangerous Woman: Embracing Risk to Change the World by Pat Mitchell. Published by Seal Press, an imprint of Perseus Books, LLC, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group, Inc. © 2019 Pat Mitchell. 

Watch her TED Talk now: https://embed.ted.com/talks/pat_mitchell_dangerous_times_call_for_dangerous_women

This post is part of TED’s “How to Be a Better Human” series, each of which contains a piece of helpful advice from people in the TED community; browse through all the posts here.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Pat Mitchell is the editorial director of TEDWomen. Throughout her career as a journalist, Emmy-winning producer and pioneering executive, she has focused on sharing women’s stories. She is chair of the Sundance and the Women’s Media Center boards and a trustee of the VDAY movement, the Skoll Foundation and the Acumen Fund. She is an advisor to Participant Media and served as a congressional appointment to The American Museum of Women’s History Advisory Council. She is the author of the memoir, Becoming a Dangerous Woman: Embracing Risk to Change the World.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: July 09, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:    https://ideas.ted.com/how-to-mentor-and-support-other-women-and-help-them-succeed/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Featured

DON’T GIVE UP … Believe … PRAY …

In the last couple of weeks many organizations have either laid off staff or completely shut down. The employees are now facing an uncertain future with some entering hopelessness. My take from a personal experience…
1. Accept the situation you are in…unemployed but skilled and experienced.
2. Quickly drop your former employer’s jacket and cage. It’s over.
3. Assess your capabilities immediately, both in skill and financially.
4. Pick the next job that can stretch your days. Don’t be picky. To those who have a job shall more jobs be offered.
5. Don’t use your savings to start a business you barely understand. You’ll be undercut by the experienced.
6. Stop brooding while doing nothing. Get up, send that CV to those who can help like a computer virus.
7. Don’t be ashamed to announce your new status. Help is accorded to those who ask.
8. You are still a dignified human being even though you do not have a job. Apply any other talent to make ends meet.
9. Your friends, family and foe alike will abandon you. Don’t waste your time counting who’s in or out….just step out and focus on your needs and opportunities. People will always talk.
10. Knock doors till your knuckles are numb..DON’T GIVE UP, believe, PRAY 🙏 and a new dawn will come.

Source ::: The Smooth Operator

The main beneficiaries of artificial intelligence success are IT departments themselves | Joe McKendrick | ZDNet

Featured

Survey finds majority of companies with AI projects reporting positive results. IT leaders see potential for security analytics and predictive intelligence to improve their delivery of tech services.

Joe McKendrick

By Joe McKendrick for Service Oriented |  July 4, 2020 — 16:51 GMT (09:51 PDT) | Topic: Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence, seen as the cure-all for a plethora of enterprise shortfalls, from chatbots to better understanding customers to automating the flow of supply chains. However, it is delivering the most impressive results to information technology departments themselves, enhancing the performance of systems and making help desks more helpful. At the same time, there’s a recognition that AI efforts — and involvement — need to expand beyond the walls of IT across all parts of the enterprise. 

data-center-nasa-photo-credit-nasa-office-of-the-cio.jpg
Photo: NASA Office of the CIO

This is one of the takeaways of a recent survey of 154 IT and business professionals at companies with at least one AI-related project in general production, conducted and published by ITPro Today, InformationWeek and Interop. Among those survey respondents with at least one AI application in general production, those with “excellent” and “very good” results comprise 64% of the group — excellent results account for 23% of respondents and 41% report very good results. 

Looking at the characteristics of the successful AI leaders, top use operational cases include predictive maintenance (54%), Inventory and supply chain optimization (50%) and manufacturing analytics (50%). At the same time, many respondents see the greatest benefits going right to the IT organization itself — 63% say they hope to achieve greater efficiencies within IT operations. Another 45% aim for improved product support and customer experience. Another 29% seek improved cybersecurity systems.   

The top IT use case is security analytics and predictive intelligence, cited by 71% of AI leaders. Another 56% say AI is helping with the help desk, while 54% have seen a positive impact on the productivity of their departments. “While critics say that the hype around AI-driven cybersecurity is overblown, clearly, IT departments are desperate to solve their cybersecurity problems, and, judging by this question in our survey, many of them are hoping AI will fill that need,” relates Sue Troy, author of the survey report.  “On the help desk, meanwhile, AI tools are using predictive analytics to improve decision-making around incident management and demand planning. And AI is being used for help desk chatbots and intelligent search recommendations.”   

There is a significant need for AI expertise and skills. More than two in three successful AI implementers, 67%, say they are seeing shortages of machine learning and data modeling skills, while 51% seek greater data engineering expertise. Another 42% say compute infrastructure skills are in short supply.   

Security ranks as the top concern among successful AI implementers, with 44% citing this as their leading issue. Model transparency – or the degree to which the inner workings of AI algorithms are visible to users of the technology — was the second-leading concern, as cited by 36%, “Model transparency is an especially thorny issue,” Troy relates. “A high level of transparency can help mitigate bias and promote trust of the system, but it carries concerns that model explanations can be hacked, making the tech more vulnerable to attack.” Built-in bias follows among 33%, as well as concerns about unexpected or unusable outcomes with 33%.

When asked about specific AI technologies they expected to incorporate into their workplaces in the next six to 24 months, machine learning tops the list among successful AI sites, cited by 55%. Deep learning follows at 53%, and intelligent robotic process automation (RPA) rounds out the top three at 52%.

Successful AI projects take time to roll out. The typical AI project took six months to a year to complete, close to half of successful AI implementers (47%) indicate. Close to one-third, 32%, report taking more than year. Only 21% were able to wrap up AI initiatives in less than six months. The costs of these projects were kept in line — 45% said the project cost about as much as planned, while 25% said the costs ran over budget. By contrast, 40% of those with less-successful AI initiatives report cost overruns. “The more experienced IT practitioners are with AI, the better able they are to project costs and avoid going over budget,” Troy says.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: July 06, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:   https://www.zdnet.com/article/the-main-beneficiaries-of-artificial-intelligence-success-are-it-departments-themselves/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Naomi Oreskes: Feminist Science is Better Science | Andrew Needham | Public Books

Featured

6.29.2020

Andrew Needham

BY ANDREW NEEDHAM

American public life is rife with questions of scientific judgment. Does red meat really cause cancers and heart disease, or are such fears overblown? How can scientists tell that climate change is occurring and what the effects of global warming might be? And, perhaps most poignantly, why should lay people trust scientists, given the histories of scientific support for eugenics; of medical doctors doubting the experiences of female patients; and of conflict among scientists over the safety of atomic power, the effects of cigarette smoke, and numerous other matters?

Perhaps no writer is better suited to address these questions than Naomi Oreskes, a trained geologist and historian of science at Harvard University. Her 2010 book Merchants of Doubt, cowritten with Erik M. Conway, introduced readers to the means by which a small group of scientists, allied with industry and the right, generated doubt about “inconvenient truths” from acid rain to global warming. That book, and the 2014 documentary film it inspired, revealed public conflicts over scientific “truth” to be the result of finely crafted public-relations campaigns. “Doubt is our product,” the tobacco industry proudly claimed in the 1950s. Merchants of Doubt showed just how that product continues to be manufactured.

In her newest book, Why Trust Science?, Oreskes takes on an even thornier problem: the manufacture and maintenance of trust. Based on her Tanner Lectures on Human Values, delivered at Princeton University, the book explores the pursuit of scientific knowledge and consensus across the 20th and 21st centuries, the changing conception of science from an individual to a social pursuit, and the reasons for and responses to science going awry. It convincingly demonstrates that “we are not powerless to judge contemporary scientific claims” and offers a ringing defense of the social and intellectual diversity of scientific communities as a key measure of trustworthiness.

Oreskes recently sat down with Andrew Needham, a professor of history at New York University, to discuss Why Trust Science?


Andrew Needham (AN): Let’s start off by talking about how you came to write this new book.

Naomi Oreskes (NO): In 2010, Erik Conway and I published the book Merchants of Doubt, which looks at what I call serial contrarians: people who systematically sowed doubt about a set of environmental issues, including acid rain, the ozone hole, and climate change.

Erik and I were trying to understand why someone would do that, particularly because the people we were looking at were scientists. They didn’t appear to be shills for ExxonMobil. It seemed that there was some other, more complicated story going on.

One of our early discoveries was that these people had been affiliated with the tobacco industry, and that they had challenged the scientific evidence linking tobacco to cancer, emphysema, cardiovascular disease, et cetera, et cetera. In our book, we demonstrated the role of political ideology. We showed how the “merchants of doubt” were committed to what we now know as neoliberalism (that word wasn’t really being bandied about back in 2005, when we started the book), but what we called free market fundamentalism. It’s the idea that government intervention in the marketplace is bad, free markets are good, and therefore any science that would imply the need for government regulation of the marketplace should be heavily scrutinized if not rejected altogether.

AN: Right.

NO: When we wrote that book, one of the things that we took for granted—one of the things we didn’t think we needed to explain—was why we should trust the science behind these issues. We more or less took it as a presumption that if there was a body of well-documented, peer-reviewed scientific work; reports from the National Research Council; reports from eminent scientific organizations like the Royal Society—that if there was a robust body of knowledge of that sort, then we, as the authors of the book, didn’t really have to question or doubt or defend that science. We could take it for granted that if the National Academy of Sciences had reviewed the literature and done a consensus report, then that science was probably robust. So, the question for us was: Why would anyone doubt that?

After the book came out and the politics of the situation evolved, it became increasingly clear that we really couldn’t take that for granted. It began to be clear that were a lot of people in the United States, and in some other parts of the world as well, who were not shills for ExxonMobil or the meat industry, people who did not necessarily own stock in Chevron or Texaco or Saudi Aramco or Peabody Coal, and yet who were, for whatever reasons, somewhat skeptical or suspicious of science.

This came home to me in a very forceful way when I went on the lecture circuit after Merchants of Doubt came out. The implicit message of my talk was: climate change isn’t a fad, this isn’t something invented by Al Gore. This is long-standing, well-developed science. It was developed by scientists who for the most part were not environmentalists. They were ordinary, nonpartisan scientists who had stumbled upon something that we would now call an environmental problem. But that wasn’t really how they thought about it at the time.

The point of all this, as I said, was to say to people: “Look, this is not just a fad, this isn’t just the latest craze.” Because often people would say that they thought it was. But it was long-standing, well-established, hard-won scientific knowledge.

After one of these lectures, a man in the audience stood up very aggressively, puffed out his chest, put his hands on his hips, and said: “Well, that’s all very well and good, but why should we trust the science?” I remember this moment very clearly because I recall thinking, “Yeah, that’s a good question.”

One of the things that you learn when you’ve been in the classroom for a long time is that, as we always say to our students, “There’s no such thing as a stupid question.” We always want to be sympathetic and empathetic, and even if our students clearly haven’t done the homework, we try to take on board the questions.

AN: Of course.

NO: I realized that I needed to do the same thing in public lectures. I needed to assume that my audience was asking questions in good faith, and I think most of the time they were. Not always. But most of the questions really were more or less in good faith.

Even when I get a hostile or belligerent interlocutor, as this man was, I still think: even if the particular individual posing the question is hostile and belligerent, there might be other people in the audience who are not belligerent but who still might be wondering the same thing. They might be thinking, “Yeah, that’s a legitimate question.”

I went home and I started to think about it. What would an informed, thoughtful, nonjudgmental response to that question look like? Taking it as a legitimate question: not assuming that science deserves our trust, but really asking the question. Can we make a case, an intellectually robust case, in answer to that question? That’s what the new book tries to do.

AN: It’s very clear in Merchants of Doubt how doubt is produced: who pays to have it produced, as well as the vectors by which doubt enters into the conversation. Conversely, can you talk about what the vectors of trust look like, and how scientific trust is produced?

NO: That’s a great question. It’s not actually the question I answer in the book, except implicitly. There’s a huge social-science literature about trust and how bonds of trust are generated, and I’m not an expert in that literature.

One thing that we do know is that it’s extremely easy to be distrustful of something you don’t understand. Certainly, this has been my experience when I give public lectures. Sometimes when people are skeptical or hostile it’s because they feel that science is a black box, that scientists are arrogant, that scientists don’t explain things very patiently or very well. They’re being asked to accept a lot of things on faith.

If you think about it, that’s a legitimate criticism. Because often if there’s some pronouncement about a scientific finding, whether it’s from the National Academy of Sciences or a press release from your university, the declaration is always about the result. It’s almost never about how that result was obtained.

AN: Part of the book seems to be a kind of extended critique of this lack of public awareness of the means by which scientific consensus is produced. Also, you suggest that this is partially due to a failure to make these processes, the processes by which consensus arises, visible.

What are the strategies for opening the black box and making this not only apparent but comprehensible to a broader public?

NO: Here’s a recent example. A set of studies was published in 2019 claiming that there was little or no good evidence that eating large amounts of red and processed meat is bad for your health, and therefore recommending that Americans just keep on eating the same way they do. This recommendation was published in a peer reviewed journal, the Annals of Internal Medicine. But it is almost certainly incorrect.

We have a huge body of evidence telling us that, in general, you will be almost certainly healthier, overall, if you eat a diet with little, if any, red meat. And almost certainly you will be healthier if you avoid processed meat. The evidence for this is very extensive. Now, a set of papers, done by one group of researchers, is claiming that that’s not true, and that you should just keep eating red meat, it’s all fine. And journalists ran with it. It was all over the media, with many articles suggesting that conventional wisdom had been overturned.

The media coverage was misleading in several ways. Journalists should, right from the get-go, have thought, “That doesn’t strike me as highly plausible.” Even if you didn’t know anything about the authors, even if you didn’t know anything about the methodology, there should have been a pretty high bar before journalists ran with that story. Because it’s just not that plausible.

Moreover, it is extremely rare for one paper, or a set of papers by a group of associated researchers, to overturn stabilized knowledge in science. That’s not to say that there’s never a case in which one study could really make you rethink a lot of other stuff. That has happened in the history of science. But not very often.

When one looks closely—and I have looked closely at many cases where science has been overturned—one generally finds that it’s not just the one person, it’s not just the one study that does the overturning. Therefore, we should be suspicious of any one study that claims to overturn well-established science. In the red meat case, it turned out, lo and behold, that several of the authors did have ties to the food industry. Surprise, surprise. Journalists should have looked more closely before they ran with this as a story of science being overturned.

AN: This idea of the one study and the heroic individual scientist connects with a key moment in the book—when you talk about the philosophy of science moving from a focus on the search for an idealized scientific method toward the idea that scientific consensus is socially produced.

NO: If one looks at climate change denial—or any other kind of contrarian narratives that are promoted in popular culture—one almost always finds that the contrarians are drawing on an individualistic trope. They are drawing on the notion of the heroic individual, the one individual who can overturn a scientific consensus. They use the heroic individual trope to dismiss the consensus: it doesn’t matter if hundreds or even thousands of scientists agree, because this one man—me, or this guy I’m promoting—has a different view. He is right and they are all wrong. You see a lot of that in climate change denial.

This is one reason why retired MIT meteorologist Richard Lindzen gets so much attention. Why does anybody even listen to him? He’s one person, he’s retired, he’s old, he’s crabby, and, in my experience, he’s mean. He once wrote an op-ed attacking me in which he didn’t even get my name right. However, he did publish some important papers on cloud feedbacks back in the 1980s. His concerns were taken seriously at the time, but he was shown to be wrong. Those papers have been refuted now by three decades of scientific evidence. He’s been demonstrated to have been wrong on that issue. So why would anybody even pay attention to this guy?

We know why the Cato Institute pays attention to him. It’s because he’s telling a story that they want to hear, one that suits their political and ideological orientation and their economic interests. But why is he effective? Why are they able to use him, and why do journalists, for example, continue to interview him?

It’s because of the power of the individualistic vision of science. If you didn’t think that an individual could overturn 100 years of scientific work, you wouldn’t care what Richard Lindzen thought. You would dismiss him as the crank that in my opinion he is. But he gets enormous amounts of attention. The media can’t wait to interview him, and his arguments come up again and again and again. He’s a zombie scientist that you can’t ever get away from.

I think that’s where the damage comes from. The individualistic trope makes many of us think that we cannot afford to ignore Richard Lindzen. It makes us believe this one person could actually overturn decades of established science. I don’t want to say that it’s never the case that an individual is important in science. Clearly, that would be silly. There have been some individuals—Einstein, Darwin, Newton—who have changed science. There’s three of them, in the entire history of science. And even these men did not change science on their own.

Darwin, in particular, while often cast as an isolated genius, laboring in solitude in Kent, was in fact part of a large network of scientists working on the question of evolution and its mechanisms. It’s also a very gendered ideal, because the “hero” in Western mythology and narrative is almost always male.

Even many scientists buy into the idea of the heroic individual scientist, although they know that it’s false. When you talk to scientists in very competitive areas, particularly people in cancer research, they’ll sometimes say things like, “I can’t take the weekend off because there’s some guy who’s 20 minutes behind me.” But if that’s actually true, then it means it can’t possibly be the case that what they’re doing is uniquely important. Because if they don’t do it, then this other guy will do it half an hour from now.

AN: One of the really fascinating counterpoints to this heroic individual science that you offer in the book is the role of feminist scholars. Not just their role in challenging the heroic male individual notion of scientific knowledge, but also in acting to reconstitute the possibility of scientific rationality.

Can you explain what makes the efforts of these feminist scholars so compelling when put into this broader narrative of the development of the philosophy of science over the long 20th century? To what extent do you think that the arguments of feminist scholars have been embraced by the scientific community?

NO: I don’t think they’ve been broadly embraced. That’s one of the goals of this book, to make more people aware of these arguments and their power.

One of the things that was interesting about writing this book, one of the things that was fun about it, was that I had a chance to go back and revisit a lot of things that I had read over the course of my career—things I’d read in graduate school, things I’d read as an assistant professor. Having always been a feminist, feminist philosophy of science was something I knew about, it was something I taught, it was something that I sometimes used in my work. But it wasn’t what I did centrally.

In rereading this material, I had a key realization. When some of the original feminist philosophy of science was being was done, back in the 1980s, alongside feminist work in the social studies of science, many scientists took offense. They saw any social analysis of science as an attack on the objectivity of science. And, to be fair, some people in science studies were anti-science, or at least anti what they saw as the excessive authority of the natural sciences. They were anti the intellectual hegemony of the natural sciences in academia—and, in some cases, in our culture at large.

However, feminists such as Helen Longino always argued that their work was not anti-science. It was, rather, about making science stronger by making it more genuinely objective, by making it less subject to bias. It was in rereading Longino’s argument that I had the realization that if scientists hadn’t been so busy taking offense, they actually could have used feminist perspectives to their advantage.

AN: Right.

NO: What feminist philosophers like Sandra Harding, Helen Longino, and Evelyn Fox Keller have argued (particularly in those arguments developed in the ’80s and ’90s, even though it’s still an ongoing topic of conversation) is that it was a mistake to think of objectivity as something that’s vested in the character of an individual.

We typically talk about a person being objective, but these women argued that this is not the best way to think about it. We all come to a discussion of any topic with our prejudices, our beliefs, our preferences—and that’s just human. There’s no way that that could ever not be the case. If we ever met a person who didn’t have values—this is what I discuss at the end of the book—who didn’t have preferences, we would think they were some kind of automaton at best, and more likely a sociopath.

Therefore, the goal in science shouldn’t be to expunge individual preferences, since that cannot be achieved. Instead, the goal should be to have a sufficiently diverse community such that somebody could flag those preferences and point them out. If you say something that I think is sexist, I could say, “Hey, Andrew, you know what? That felt a little sexist to me.” Or if I notice whole areas of data that scientists are ignoring (philosopher Lisa Lloyd has done important work on this), then saying, “How come you guys are ignoring this information?” gives me the opportunity to point out blind spots.

This will work most effectively if a community is diverse, not just in terms of gender, but in different ways: economically, racially, ethnically, philosophically, demographically. The more diverse the community is, the more likely someone in the community is able to say, “Wait a minute, I want to question that assumption.”

These feminist philosophers were particularly interested in the way women scientists were pointing out blind spots, gaps, and disappearances that, when they were pointed out, helped to make the science better. Male scientists were missing important things. While, in theory, men might have pointed out what was being missed, in practice, it was generally women who did. Many of the things that these women scientists pointed out are now accepted and taken for granted. The argument is that science is stronger if the community is diverse. And recent history supports that.

Helen Longino talks about what she calls strong objectivity: placing objectivity in an individual results in weak objectivity, because it relies on the individual and makes objectivity into individual discipline. If you can rely on a diverse community of people to point out blind spots, that’s a better, stronger strategy.

AN: That’s really fascinating.

NO: This way of thinking hasn’t taken hold in the scientific community as much as it should. Implicitly, there is some kind of acknowledgement. For example, we are seeing that, in large-scale scientific assessments, including by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, scientists make an effort to have diverse author groups. I think most academic scientists who support diversity do so on moral grounds. They think it is the right thing to do, which, of course it is, but it’s also the right move, epistemically.

Science thrives when it is open to anyone who has the talent for it, and the taste for the hard work involved. And society thrives when our institutions are seen to be fair. But my argument is that the case for diversity is epistemic as well as moral. I’ve never heard a scientist say, “Yeah, it’s really great that the feminists pointed this out because once we understood the epistemic benefits of diversity, we realized that we could do better science.” My goal is that, in the future, scientists will say that.

This article was commissioned by Caitlin Zaloomicon

Featured image: Naomi Oreskes. Photograph by Kayana Szymczak. Used with permission

#CLIMATE #ENVIRONMENT #FEMINISM #HISTORY OF SCIENCE #INTERVIEW #OBJECTIVITY #RESEARCH #SCIENCE #TOBACCO



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: July 06, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:   https://www.publicbooks.org/naomi-oreskes-feminist-science-is-better-science/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



MEET A ROCKET WOMAN: NIAMH SHAW, SPACE COMMUNICATOR, ARTIST & ENGINEER | Vinita M | Rocket Women

Featured
Rocket Women

INSPIRATIONAL WOMENMEET A ROCKET WOMAN

21 JANUARY, 2018

Dr. Niamh Shaw – Artist, Scientist, Engineer & Communicator

Dr. Niamh Shaw has dreamt of becoming an astronaut since she was a child and is actively making steps towards achieving her goal. She tells Rocket Women about realising that her passion involved combining science and the arts, ultimately leading her to create international theatre shows and outreach to ensure that the public are brought along and inspired on her journey to space.

Tell me about your journey to the space industry and to where you are now?

It’s a very long story. Basically when I was very young, I was very clear that I wanted to go to space and as a child I wanted to be an astronaut. Because there were no role models in the town that I grew up or in Ireland indeed, apart from what you would see on television coming from NASA and the Moon landings, it was like I knew that I didn’t have permission to achieve that. I actually couldn’t figure out how to do it either. So it was a fear of failure and no one really pointing me in the right direction to do that.

It became very clear to me that I hadn’t really let that dream go and I had to do something about it.

So, I forgot about it for a very long time. Then I was making my very first theatre show, which was combining science and the arts together. I was looking at all of these decisions that I’d made, and one of them was about me wanting to be an astronaut as a child. While I was figuring that out, I realised that I got very upset because I’d done nothing about it. It became very clear to me that I hadn’t really let that dream go and I had to do something about it. That was in 2011 and since then I have been actively making steps towards ultimately achieving that goal.

Making theatre is a big part of it. It allows me to share my personal story and I’m now on my third theatre piece. The second piece toured internationally – it toured to Edinburgh and it toured to Adelaide, and it help get the message out there. Every time I do a show it gives me more confidence and more belief that I can move forward. The latest show, ‘Diary of a Martian Beekeeper‘ is set in the future this time, as I’m on Mars and I’m conducting an experiment about bees. Because, as I’m on this space journey, bringing this environmental message into it has been very important to me.

I’m always talking about space and bringing to as many people as possible.

As well as the theatre shows, I participated in the ISU Space Studies Programme, a 9 week intensive programme in 2015 and then out of that I was invited to participate in a simulated Mars mission in the Utah dessert in early 2017 and I was also participated in a zero-gravity flight in Star City in Russia. I’m always talking about space and bringing to as many people as possible.

Dr. Niamh Shaw performing

Who were your role models when you were growing up? How important are role models to young girls?

I think they’re hugely important, we don’t realize that every time you’re around a child, you could potentially be a role model, they’re just picking up signals from us all the time. There was nobody really around me from the space perspective that I could call a role model. I think that’s why I didn’t achieve it until now.

My Dad really encouraged me to embrace that technical and logical part of my brain.

Other than that, a role model for me was my older brother – he was mad into space and science fiction, so anything he liked, I liked. My parents as well were really important role models for me. Dad really encouraged me to embrace that technical and logical part of my brain. He bought us a small personal computer when we were very young and I taught myself coding on that using Basic at the time which was the code. He showed me how to change a plug and he set me projects in the Summer where I would pick a planet and I would write a comic about it. So he obviously saw that in me and they were a big influence for me.

Some of my teachers at school too, my English teacher, Sister Lee-Mary showed me that I was a lot more creative than I’d realised and encouraged that in me. My chemistry teacher Mrs.Greer loved chemistry and it sort of rubbed off on me and because of her it just copperfastened my confidence in STEM and wanting to pursue that field of study after I finished secondary school.

Niamh on a zero-g flight in Russia with the Stargazing Lottie Doll

I love that you bring the Stargazer Lottie doll along with you on all of your expeditions. How do you hope Lottie will inspire the next generation?

I think the ethos behind the Lottie dolls, all of them, is that children design them. So they wait for children to come up with suggestions about the kind of doll that they want to see, which is great. So you’re not getting one kind of doll that’s supposed to suit one million, or one billion girls. The girls themselves are dictating what kind of dolls they want, which is how Stargazer Lottie came about. A girl went and said, “Why isn’t there a doll who is an Astronomer, because that’s what I do.”

[Lottie] dolls mirror the expectations and dreams that young girls want.

So they are very much open to making dolls that mirror the expectations and dreams that those girls want. I think it’s just a fantastic initiative and I’m really proud that I bring her with me everywhere. When I go and talk to young girls in schools, the reason why I like it is that the doll – they attach with immediately and the fact that she’s also an Astronomer kind of shifts their perception of what a doll is for them.

[The Lottie doll] is hopefully feeding into the message that they can be anything that they want to be.

When I go in to talk to them we do a workshop around space and I map out the scale of the Universe, but we also talk about what they want to be when they grow up and all of that is positively attached to space, which is great, and also to the Lottie doll, so it’s hopefully all feeding into the message that they can be anything that they want to be.

What does success mean to you?

Success means to me without a doubt, that I didn’t give up on myself, that I was brave enough to live the life that I wanted. That I bet on myself. It’s been so many years that I’ve wanted to do this, and I never allowed myself to dream that big or to give myself that big a task without that big an objective. Every year that I work on it, that fear gets smaller and smaller and I’m able to take stronger and more brave steps forward.

Success means to me without a doubt, that I didn’t give up on myself, that I was brave enough to live the life that I wanted. That I bet on myself.

To me success would be knowing no matter what the outcome, that I didn’t give up on myself and the reason that if I achieve it or don’t achieve it, wasn’t because I gave up. I think that’s what success means to me and happiness – that in succeeding in what I wanted to do with my life, I’ve managed to bring as many people as I can with me along the way. So it can’t just be the action of me getting say to the Moon and looking back, it has to be something of much bigger value that that. That I can bring the general public with me and hope to get them to see the Earth from a new perspective.

Niamh taking part in a Martian simulation in the Utah desert

Was there anything unexpected about your career journey that you thought would be different to your initial expectations?

I think because my career journey is so bizzare, to take you through it – I went to college and did a degree in Engineering, and then I did a Masters in Engineering and then I did a PhD in Science. This was around the time that I’d kind of forgotten my childhood dreams at the time. I was always a creative person and when I finished my PhD I was in full-time research – I really didn’t enjoy it and knew that I had to make a change.

I was going to emigrate to New Zealand to take up a new job in the same field of research and I thought that maybe it was the geography that was wrong. But it wasn’t, it was something in me that was wrong, there was something missing. I thought that it was the artistic part of my brain, so I stepped away from full-time research then and I started pursuing performing and getting work in that way, which was great. I think the thing that I didn’t expect was that after I was doing that for a couple of years, I really missed science terribly. I got a bit of a fright and thought that I’d made a major mistake, but I hadn’t. It was when things started to make sense for me.

I realized that the person I am is this combination of loving information and loving technical details, but wanting to make them human and wanting to represent them in an everyday way so people who have no relationship with science whatsoever can find a way to understand it, and hopefully that be a springboard for their own curiosity to kind of take off.

It was around the same time in 2011 that I realized that the person I am is this combination of loving information and loving technical details, but wanting to make them human and wanting to represent them in an everyday way so people who have no relationship with science whatsoever can find a way to understand it, and hopefully that be a springboard for their own curiosity to kind of take off.

I realized I wasn’t that bad in it, as the combination of those two skills made me literate in science but also literate in how to communicate it in an everyday way, because that’s what I’d been doing for a number of years. The lovely thing about that is that it’s really helped me in telling my Space story as well as me also being able to bring people along with me on my journey, because I’m able to humanize as best as I can – I’m not saying I’m perfect at it, but I’ve been able to humanize all of that science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). So I didn’t expect it to all work out, I just thought that with all these things that weren’t joined, I’d finally get to the point where they all kind of worked together.

Niamh on-stage at InspireFest 2017 [InspireFest]

How did your family help to shape your career path in STEM?

Completely. Totally and utterly. There’s no doubt in my mind that they were the main influencers. My Dad is an Engineer and we were mad science fiction fans. He showed us the Moon landings and he showed me how to change a plug. It was just everywhere and I was very comfortable with science and technology from a very young age. I had a personal connection with it, so I was never afraid of it, or intimidated by it.

I don’t think I was the absolute strongest in the class in maths by any means, but I was never intimidated by it and would give it a try and hope for the best, so they are totally and utterly [responsible for shaping my career path in STEM]. My teachers at secondary school too, but my parents had a huge impact with my relationship with STEM and my comfort with it.

If you had one piece of advice for your 10-year-old self, what would it be? Would there be any decisions that you’d have made differently?

I think all I would say to my 10-year-old self was that you were right, you should’ve said it to people and not be afraid to say it out loud. Just because you were a girl didn’t mean it couldn’t have happened for you.

I don’t think I could’ve changed anything about the course of my life, I think I should’ve just believed in myself more then that I could do it. Because I went right back to it anyway, so it was always there.

I wanted to go to Space Camp and I wanted to go to [NASA’s] Kennedy Space Center, but we just weren’t a family that could afford that. So I guess if my parents were wealthier I would’ve put my foot down and insisted that we went somewhere like that, but we didn’t have that so I never did. So I don’t think I could’ve changed anything about the course of my life, I think I should’ve just believed in myself more then that I could do it. Because I went right back to it anyway, so it was always there.

VINITA M


Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 27, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:   https://rocket-women.com/2018/01/meet-a-rocket-woman-niamh-shaw-space-communicator-artist-engineer/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Reinforcement Learning: The Next Big Thing For AI (Artificial Intelligence)? | Tom Taulli | Forbes

Featured

Tom Taulli Contributor Entrepreneurs I write about tech & finance.

Data
Digital generated image of data. GETTY

When it comes to AI, much of the attention has been on deep learning. And for good reason. This part of the AI world has seen great strides, such as with image recognition.

But of course, there are other areas of AI that look promising, such as reinforcement learning. Keep in mind that cutting-edge companies like Google’s DeepMind and OpenAI have already made breakthroughs with this approach.

So what is reinforcement learning? Well, interesting enough, it is not new.  “Reinforcement learning is a classic behavioral phenomenon, known in the psychology literature since the early 1950s,” said Dr. Matt Johnson, who is a professor of psychology at Hult International Business School and the author of Blindsight: The (Mostly) Hidden Ways Marketing Reshapes Our Brains. “In its simplest form, it states that the frequency of a behavior will go up or down depending on the direct consequences of that behavior. This is true of animal behavior as well as human behavior.”

But some of the key principles of reinforcement learning have been applied to AI models. This is often referred to as deep reinforcement learning (since it is leveraged with deep learning).

“Reinforcement learning entails an agent, action and reward,” said Ankur Taly, who is the head of data science at Fiddler. “The agent, such as a robot or character, interacts with its surrounding environment and observes a specific activity, responding accordingly to produce a beneficial or desired result. Reinforcement learning adheres to a specific methodology and determines the best means to obtain the best result. It’s very similar to the structure of how we play a video game, in which the agent engages in a series of trials to obtain the highest score or reward. Over several iterations, it learns to maximize its cumulative reward.” 

In fact, some of the most interesting use cases for reinforcement learning have been with complex games. Consider the case of DeepMind’s AlphaGo. The system used reinforcement learning to quickly understand how to play Go and was able to beat the world champion, Lee Sedol, in 2016 (the game has more potential moves than the number of atoms in the universe!)

But there have certainly been other applications of the technology that go beyond gaming. To this end, reinforcement learning has been particularly useful with robotics. For example, OpenAI has used this technique for a robotic arm that was able to solve the Rubik’s cube. 

Reinforcement learning has even been shown to be effective when finding better solutions for tax policies and equality, as seen with Saleforce.com’s AI Economist. “We believe a reinforcement learning framework is well-suited for uncovering insights on how the behavior of economic agents could be influenced by pulling different policy ‘levers,’” said Richard Socher, who is the Chief Scientist at Salesforce. “This is one of many scenarios where we believe reinforcement learning can be utilized in the future.”

Here are some other areas where reinforcement learning can make an impact: 

  • Entertainment: “The future consists of free-form environments that the next generation of ‘movie-goers’ and gamers are looking for,” said Yuheng Chen, who is the COO of rct studio. “AI-powered characters will co-adapt to produce elaborate storylines, and consumers will no longer be confined to fixed dialogues and rigid interaction between non-player characters.”
  • Healthcare: “Imagine trying to use reinforcement learning to teach an AI doctor how to treat a medical patient,” said Noah Giansiracusa, who is an Assistant Professor of Mathematical Sciences at Bentley University. “The AI doctor might try medications almost randomly to see what effect they have and over time should learn the patterns and develop an understanding of which medications work best in which situations. But we obviously can’t let the AI doctor perform these experiments on real patients and physiology is far too complicated to build a suitable computer simulation of the human body to experiment on virtually. However, with vast troves of medical data, when the AI doctor wants to try a certain medication on a certain patient, we can look through the data and find an actual historic patient who had similar symptoms and vitals as the current patient, and even find such a patient who was then given the medication in question—-thus the AI doctor is not actually performing new experiments to learn, it is suggesting experiments to try then looking back at past data to see what typically happened when that action was taken.”

Now reinforcement learning is still in the nascent phases. But given the advances so far, this approach to AI is likely to get more important.  “I believe reinforcement learning is on the cusp of rippling through and disrupting a lot of industries,” said Giansiracusa.

Tom (@ttaulli) is an advisor to startups and the author of Artificial Intelligence Basics: A Non-Technical Introduction and The Robotic Process Automation Handbook: A Guide to Implementing RPA Systems. He also has developed various online courses, such as for the Python programming languageFollow me on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out my website or some of my other work hereTom Taulli

Tom (@ttaulli) is the author of Artificial Intelligence Basics: A Non-Technical Introduction ( https://amzn.to/2InAZeT) and The Robotic Process Automation Handbook: A Guide to Implementing RPA Systems ( https://amzn.to/2tURWJx)



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 27, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:   https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomtaulli/2020/06/05/reinforcement-learning-the-next-big-thing-for-ai-artificial-intelligence/#675f624c62ba

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



NASA Names Headquarters After Its First Black Female Engineer, Mary Jackson | Allyson Waller | The New York Times

Featured

Ms. Jackson’s contributions received widespread attention after the release of the 2016 film “Hidden Figures,” which chronicled black women’s work during the space race.

Mary Jackson at the NASA Langley Research Center. After 34 years, she retired from the center in 1985 as an aeronautical engineer.
Mary Jackson at the NASA Langley Research Center. After 34 years, she retired from the center in 1985 as an aeronautical engineer.Credit…NASA Langley Research Center

By Allyson Waller

  • June 24, 2020

NASA announced on Wednesday that it would name its Washington, D.C., headquarters after Mary Jackson, the organization’s first black female engineer and a pivotal player in helping U.S. astronauts reach space.

Jim Bridenstine, the administrator of NASA, said the agency would continue to honor those whose histories have long been overlooked.

“Today, we proudly announce the Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters building,” Mr. Bridenstine said in a statement. “It appropriately sits on ‘Hidden Figures Way,’ a reminder that Mary is one of many incredible and talented professionals in NASA’s history who contributed to this agency’s success.”

Carolyn Lewis, Ms. Jackson’s daughter, said she felt honored to see NASA continue to celebrate her mother’s legacy.

“She was a scientist, humanitarian, wife, mother and trailblazer who paved the way for thousands of others to succeed, not only at NASA, but throughout this nation,” Ms. Lewis said in the statement.

Born in Hampton, Va., Ms. Jackson graduated from the Hampton Institute, now known as Hampton University, in 1942, after majoring in math and physical science.

In 1951, she began working at NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in the then-segregated West Area Computing Unit of what is now the Langley Research Center.

She went on to work with NASA’s 4×4 supersonic pressure tunneland became the agency’s first black female engineer in 1958. She completed additional training and courses for her new role after petitioning the City of Hampton to allow her to learn with white students, taking University of Virginia night classes at a local high school.

Growing up, Ms. Lewis said it wasn’t hard to notice the adversities her mother endured. 

“We thank God for my mother, for the sacrifices she made for us,” Ms. Lewis said in an interview, referring to herself and her brother, Levi Jackson Jr. 

Ms. Jackson retired from NASA in 1985. Aside from her professional accomplishments, she was known for her dedication to elevating women in scientific fields, and Ms. Lewis said she was also a Girl Scout troop leader. She died in 2005.

Her contributions, along with the work of the NASA mathematicians Katherine Johnson and Dorothy Vaughan, were highlighted in the 2016 film “Hidden Figures,” inspired by a book of the same name by Margot Lee Shetterly. The film, in which Ms. Jackson was portrayed by Janelle Monáe, was nominated for three Oscars.

Ms. Lewis said she and her family appreciated the recognition her mother started to received, but she also wished it would have come sooner.

“We are so proud of what her accomplishments are, but sometimes it makes us sad,” she said, “because you don’t get recognized until maybe after you’re gone. She surely should have had her recognition before then.” 

Since the women’s stories have been brought to a wider audience, NASA has taken steps to make sure their names — and contributions — remain known.

Last year, NASA renamed its Independent Verification and Validation Facility in Fairmont, W.Va., after Ms. Johnson, just days before her death; in 2017, the agency named a research facility in her honor. In June 2019, NASA renamed the street in front of its headquarters Hidden Figures Way.

“NASA facilities across the country are named after people who dedicated their lives to push the frontiers of the aerospace industry,” Mr. Bridenstine said. “The nation is beginning to awaken to the greater need to honor the full diversity of people who helped pioneer our great nation.”



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 27, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/24/science/nasa-mary-jackson-hidden-figures.html

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



If AI is going to help us in a crisis, we need a new kind of ethics | Will Douglas Heaven | MIT Technology Review

Featured

Ethics for urgency means making ethics a core part of AI rather than an afterthought, says Jess Whittlestone. 

June 24, 2020|caution corrosive AiMS TECH | PIXABAY

Jess Whittlestone at the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence at the University of Cambridge and her colleagues published a comment piece in Nature Machine Intelligence this week arguing that if artificial intelligence is going to help in a crisis, we need a new, faster way of doing AI ethics, which they call ethics for urgency. 

Jess Whittlestone

For Whittlestone, this means anticipating problems before they happen, finding better ways to build safety and reliability into AI systems, and emphasizing technical expertise at all levels of the technology’s development and use. At the core of these recommendations is the idea that ethics needs to become simply a part of how AI is made and used, rather than an add-on or afterthought. 

Ultimately, AI will be quicker to deploy when needed if it is made with ethics built in, she argues. I asked her to talk me through what this means.

This interview has been edited for length and clarity.

Why do we need a new kind of ethics for AI?

With this pandemic we’re suddenly in a situation where people are really talking about whether AI could be useful, whether it could save lives. But the crisis has made it clear that we don’t have robust enough ethics procedures for AI to be deployed safely, and certainly not ones that can be implemented quickly.

What’s wrong with the ethics we have?

I spent the last couple of years reviewing AI ethics initiatives, looking at their limitations and asking what else we need. Compared to something like biomedical ethics, the ethics we have for AI isn’t very practical. It focuses too much on high-level principles. We can all agree that AI should be used for good. But what does that really mean? And what happens when high-level principles come into conflict?

For example, AI has the potential to save lives but this could come at the cost of civil liberties like privacy. How do we address those trade-offs in ways that are acceptable to lots of different people? We haven’t figured out how to deal with the inevitable disagreements.

AI ethics also tends to respond to existing problems rather than anticipate new ones. Most of the issues that people are discussing today around algorithmic bias came up only when high-profile things went wrong, such as with policing and parole decisions.

But ethics needs to be proactive and prepare for what could go wrong, not what has gone wrong already. Obviously, we can’t predict the future. But as these systems become more powerful and get used in more high-stakes domains, the risks will get bigger.

What opportunities have we missed by not having these procedures in place?

It’s easy to overhype what’s possible, and AI was probably never going to play a huge role in this crisis. Machine-learning systems are not mature enough.

But there are a handful of cases in which AI is being tested for medical diagnosis or for resource allocation across hospitals. We might have been able to use those sorts of systems more widely, reducing some of the load on health care, had they been designed from the start with ethics in mind.

With resource allocation in particular, you are deciding which patients are highest priority. You need an ethical framework built in before you use AI to help with those kinds of decisions.

So is ethics for urgency simply a call to make existing AI ethics better?

That’s part of it. The fact that we don’t have robust, practical processes for AI ethics makes things more difficult in a crisis scenario. But in times like this you also have greater need for transparency. People talk a lot about the lack of transparency with machine-learning systems as black boxes. But there is another kind of transparency, concerning how the systems are used.

This is especially important in a crisis, when governments and organizations are making urgent decisions that involve trade-offs. Whose health do you prioritize? How do you save lives without destroying the economy? If an AI is being used in public decision-making, transparency is more important than ever.

What needs to change?

We need to think about ethics differently. It shouldn’t be something that happens on the side or afterwards—something that slows you down. It should simply be part of how we build these systems in the first place: ethics by design.

I sometimes feel “ethics” is the wrong word. What we’re saying is that machine-learning researchers and engineers need to be trained to think through the implications of what they’re building, whether they’re doing fundamental research like designing a new reinforcement-learning algorithm or something more practical like developing a health-care application. If their work finds its way into real-world products and services, what might that look like? What kinds of issues might it raise?

Some of this has started already. We are working with some early-career AI researchers, talking to them about how to bring this way of thinking to their work. It’s a bit of an experiment, to see what happens. But even NeurIPS [a leading AI conference] now asks researchers to include a statement at the end of their papers outlining potential societal impacts of their work.

You’ve said that we need people with technical expertise at all levels of AI design and use. Why is that?

I’m not saying that technical expertise is the be-all and end-all of ethics, but it’s a perspective that needs to be represented. And I don’t want to sound like I’m saying all the responsibility is on researchers, because a lot of the important decisions about how AI gets used are made further up the chain, by industry or by governments.

But I worry that the people who are making those decisions don’t always fully understand the ways it might go wrong. So you need to involve people with technical expertise. Our intuitions about what AI can and can’t do are not very reliable.

What you need at all levels of AI development are people who really understand the details of machine learning to work with people who really understand ethics. Interdisciplinary collaboration is hard, however. People with different areas of expertise often talk about things in different ways. What a machine-learning researcher means by privacy may be very different from what a lawyer means by privacy, and you can end up with people talking past each other. That’s why it’s important for these different groups to get used to working together.

You’re pushing for a pretty big institutional and cultural overhaul. What makes you think people will want to do this rather than set up ethics boards or oversight committees—which always make me sigh a bit because they tend to be toothless?

Yeah, I also sigh. But I think this crisis is forcing people to see the importance of practical solutions. Maybe instead of saying, “Oh, let’s have this oversight board and that oversight board,” people will be saying, “We need to get this done, and we need to get it done properly.”

Author

Will Douglas Heaven



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 25, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:   https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/06/24/1004432/ai-help-crisis-new-kind-ethics-machine-learning-pandemic/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #ArtificialIntelligence, #BeTheChange, #Data, #DataScience, #Diversity, #Economists, #Equity, #GenderEquality, #Inclusion, #LeanIn, #LeanInTogether, #MachineLearning, #MindfulLeadership, #Mindfulness, #OptionB, #Programming, #Visualization, #WhoRunTheWorld, #WomenEmpowerment, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenInAG, #WomenInAI, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInMath, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInPower, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInSales, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInTech, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenPower, #WomensAgenda, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenWhoLead

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Leaders, Stop Denying the Gender Inequity in Your Organization | Michelle King | Harvard Business Review

Featured
Vitezslav Vylicil/Getty Images 

The lack of women in leadership is not simply a representational issue. Focusing on getting more women in leadership positions not only treats women as token hires, it excludes men who are made to feel as though engaging in diversity and inclusion is a win-lose fight for a seat on the leadership table. And improving representation will not fix the culture and environment that excluded women in the first place.

Rather, the real aim should be for leaders to create a culture that values, rewards, and supports individual differences. In a work environment where differences are valued, everyone has an opportunity to advance, which is why both women and men are more likely to rise to senior leadership positions in cultures that value equality.

So why aren’t leaders creating these environments? In a word, denial. While most people know that women have different experiences than men at work, I found in my research that a majority of leaders are in denial about that fact. I interviewed 72 men and women from two different organizations and these senior executives consistently upheld the belief that workplaces are meritocracies and that all employees are treated in the same way. Almost every one of my interviewees said that they believed men and women have identical opportunities, workplace experiences, and career paths. Consequently, they believed that women do not succeed because of their individual choices or capabilities and not because of unwelcoming and even hostile work environments.

Most workplaces were created by men and for men, which in turn has created numerous challenges for women to overcome. The situation is only made worse when leaders make public commitments to increase the number of women in leadership roles and then continue to rely on ineffective solutions as the means to achieving this. Leaders might be aware there is a gender equality problem, but very few understand how inequality works.

And yet leaders set the standards for behaviors in organizations. They decide what gets endorsed, accepted, supported, overlooked, and rewarded. They decide how many women will be on a team, and more importantly if they will be treated in a way that enables them to thrive in the organization. A “policy” or “training program” can’t compensate for leaders who consistently ignore or even endorse behaviors, such as comments or jokes, that discriminate, marginalize, and exclude women.

Inclusion does or doesn’t happen in millions of moments each day and leaders need to stop denying the reality for women and become aware of all the ways they enable inequality to unfold in their teams.

The call for leaders to advance gender equality at work, regardless of whether they lead a startup, multinational, or public-sector organization, is in reality an invitation for them to lead. Here’s how they can do that.

Disrupt Denial 

The first step is for leaders to get out of denial and become aware of how inequality shows up in their team, department, and organization. Even if they are aware of the barriers, they can help others do the same. To do so, they must create opportunities for employees to talk about their experiences of marginalization and discrimination. One leader at a large multinational organization that I spoke with as part of my research held a one-hour weekly meeting with their teams to openly discuss topics like the pay gap, motherhood penalty, and microaggressions to raise awareness of the barriers women face and the impact each has and what needs to be done to tackle these issues. While discussing these topics might make some leaders uncomfortable at first, it is important to lean into this discomfort as this is how we make invisible experiences of inequality visible.

Get to Know the Barriers

How many leaders understand the barriers women face at work? There’s the fact that women must perform at a higher standard than men to achieve the same level of success. This performance tax limits women’s pay and promotion opportunities. There’s also the role conflict that many women encounter as they try to manage the often incompatible roles of worker, wife, and mother. And many women experience identity conflict, trying to lead in workplaces where only masculine management styles are recognized and rewarded. It’s important for leaders to know that every one of these challenges is made harder still when women have multiple intersecting identities like race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical or mental ability, religion, and age.

It’s not enough to be aware there is a problem, and it’s certainly not enough to throw a quota in place, or another training initiative, which requires no real effort from leaders. To solve inequality, we need leaders to educate themselves, by reading, researching, and understanding why these challenges exist and how, as leaders, they might be unknowingly creating or upholding such barriers.

Manage the Moments 

Inequality is a practice — it’s something employees do, which is why leaders need to continuously manage behaviors that cause inequality in the same way that they manage safety, costs, and productivity. It doesn’t matter how many policies or diversity and inclusion initiatives companies have in place if leaders and employees cannot translate equality into a set of behaviors, norms, and routines.

In practice, this means leaders call out inappropriate or exclusionary behaviors, especially when they happen in informal interactions; give employees direct one-on-one feedback outlining how their behavior marginalizes other employees — whether intentional or not; and explain the impact these moments have on the team. They should not, as too many leaders do, ignore the incident or downplay its impact in the hope that it goes away. The most committed leaders can also use these experiences as opportunities for collective learning with their teams by sharing what happened and what will change as a result. When leaders do this on a regular basis, they raise employee’s awareness of the problem and encourage everyone to solve the issue by changing their behavior.

Even though managing discrimination can be challenging for leaders, it’s a lot harder for employees to work in an environment where their identity is devalued. Being in a position to tackle inequality that you yourself may never have to experience is the ultimate privilege.

There are more inclusion initiatives than ever before, from diversity targets to focused recruitment efforts, unconscious bias training, and individual development programs for women, which often include mentoring, sponsorship, and coaching. With all this activity, it’s easy to assume progress is being made. But none of these efforts will guarantee that women reach management positions or that, when they do, they’ll be valued in the same way as men. That’s where leaders come in. It’s on the most powerful people in the organization to set the standard for the types of behaviors they want employees to adopt and to give them the skills and feedback they need to practice equality as part of their day-to-day job so that it becomes a fundamental way of working. That’s the only way organizations will become truly equal.


Michelle King is the director of inclusion at Netflix, and the author of The Fix: Overcome the Invisible Barriers That Are Holding Women Back at Work.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 24, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:  https://hbr.org/2020/06/leaders-stop-denying-the-gender-inequity-in-your-organization

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomensAgenda, #WomenPower, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenInTech, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSales, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInPower, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInMath, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInAI, #WomenInAG, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenEmpowerment, #WhoRunTheWorld, #Visualization, #Programming, #OptionB, #Mindfulness, #MindfulLeadership, #MachineLearning, #LeanInTogether, #LeanIn, #Inclusion, #GenderEquality, #Equity, #Economists, #Diversity, #DataScience, #Data, #BeTheChange, #ArtificialIntelligence

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Engineering: A Diverse Sector | Jo Foster | Women In STEM

Featured

IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year Ying Wan LohSponsored by:

Jo Foster

Equality, Diversity & Inclusion Manager at the Institution of Engineering and Technology 

From space exploration and autonomous vehicles, to advancements in healthcare and sustainable energy – engineers are inventing new ways to do things and finding solutions that will make this world a better place. 


The opportunities are endless, and the industry is always evolving, but there is still a lack of understanding about what engineering and technology truly entails and the sector is suffering from a huge image problem. The stereotype of a typical engineer among school children is a white, middle-aged man.

Our research, conducted among a representative sample of 9 to 16-year-olds, revealed they see an engineer as white (51%), middle aged (31%) male (67%), with glasses (40%) and a beard (27%). In terms of the tools of the trade “he” might have at his disposal, 44% thought an engineer would wear a hard hat and 40% thought he’d wear a high-vis jacket. 

Sadly, less than one in ten (9%) children imagine engineers to be a woman. And, it seems this outdated stereotyping is being passed down from their parents. 

Challenging the stereotype 

To dispel these stereotypes, the Young Woman Engineer of the Year Awards celebrates women working in modern engineering. As well as highlighting female engineering talent, these awards seek to find role models who can help address the UK science and engineering skills crisis by promoting engineering careers to more girls and women. Just 12% of those working in engineering occupations are women (source: Engineering UK).

I am proud to be recognised through this prestigious award and I hope to use it as a positive catalyst to drive for more women and diversity in engineering.

Ying Wan Loh, IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year 2019 

In December, Ying Wan Loh was named IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year 2019 (pictured). As a Manufacturing Engineer at Rolls-Royce, she analyses production data and carries out improvement projects to reduce defects. Ying also looks after the complex aerospace supply chain to ensure the company achieve quality and delivery on time. 

Where a career in STEM can take you 

Ying is, today, calling on her fellow young female engineers across the UK to enter the 2020 awards.

She said: “Winning the YWE award has provided me with a national and international platform to share my story. I have since gained some great exposure and expanded my professional network considerably.

“I’ve had the opportunity to appear on TV, radio and podcasts, as well as being invited to speak at various events across Europe. The opportunities I’ve had already demonstrates how winning the award has substantially increased the reach and impact of my STEM engagements and volunteering. I’ve also connected with many high-achieving and inspiring women in the industry, both within my company and externally.

“Overall, it has been a wonderful experience so far which I will always be grateful for. Engineering is dynamic and exciting, and I am so glad to be in a position to share this with students and wider society. I am proud to be recognised through this prestigious award and I hope to use it as a positive catalyst to drive for more women and diversity in engineering.”

The deadline for entries to the IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year Awards is 5 July 2020. For more information, visit: theiet.org/ywe
The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is one of the world’s largest engineering bodies to promote engineering, particularly among young people, helping them to see that engineering provides an exciting, creative and rewarding career option. 

Author: Jo Foster

“We’re proud to be women in the STEM sector”

Sponsored by:

Two women with STEM careers reveal how they entered their respective industries, what it’s like to work in a male-dominated sector, and how to attract more women to STEM roles.


Louise McDonnell

Mechanical Engineer, RWE Generation UK, Pembroke Power Station

Louise has worked for RWE since 2006. She is currently part of a five-strong mechanical engineering team at Pembroke Power Station, one of the largest power stations of its kind in Europe. 

“I don’t think people used to talk about ‘STEM’ when I was at school, but I certainly wasn’t made to feel as though I was studying boys’ subjects” she says. 

“That only dawned on me when I was doing a degree in mechanical engineering with aeronautics. 10% of my fellow students were women!”

How has your STEM background helped in your role?

You do need a background in STEM to do what I do — although there are various routes into the industry. 

I’ve worked with people who came in through the apprenticeship scheme, for instance. I came in via the graduate scheme and did placements all around the company.

What’s it like to work in a male-dominated industry?

Out of the 90 staff here, eight are women. Of those, only three are in technical roles. I haven’t had to deal with any issues, and I feel proud to be a female engineer. 

Occasionally if I’m running a meeting, I might notice that eye contact is more prominent among the men. But once they understand your position, that changes.

How can more women be attracted into the industry? 

I have two young boys, so we watch a LOT of CBeebies, and I’m impressed by how many strong female characters there are. 

That’s important for children to see. Plus, parents have a huge role to play if children need help or encouragement with STEM subjects.

Why should women aspire to a STEM career?

It’s so varied. For example, mechanical engineering is needed in every industry — food, clothing, petrochemicals, energy, etc. Being a mechanical engineer is a ticket to everywhere.

Abhi Selvarajah

Freight Logistics Operator, RWE Supply & Trading

Abhi — part of a 15-strong team — has been a Freight Logistics Operator for 15 months. Her role is to manage the operation and optimisation of six ships in the RWE fleet. 

Abhi started her career with the company in a freight-related back office role. “Doing that job made me realise that I wanted to be on the frontlines managing ships and making decisions,” she says. “For example, does the ship need fuel? Does it need to carry cargo? Is it sailing at the right speed?” 

She now aims to take shipping exams and become a more senior member of the team.

Can you chart your career development?

I took chemistry, maths, further maths and economics at A Level, and then did a finance degree. 

After my second year at university I took a (non-freight) placement opportunity with RWE. That went well, and I was made aware that there would be a role for me with the company after graduation.

What’s it like to work in a male-dominated industry?

Some of the people I’m in contact with by phone or email obviously find it hard to understand that a woman is managing ships! 

We do have to get more women into freight operation. Ultimately, though, I’m lucky because seven of us in my team are female, including my manager.

Do you feel you have to prove yourself more than a man does?

Yes, to a certain extent — although I want my work to speak for itself. 

On the other hand, there are women in senior roles in the company, so I’ve never felt restricted in what I’m capable of achieving.

How important are female role models?

Every manager I’ve ever had at RWE has been a woman. In my placement year it was so important for me to work with a high-flying female. It made me realise the same opportunities she had would be open to me.

Author: Tony Greenway

Diversity is the key to future success

iStock / Getty Images Plus Sponsored by:

Sonia GonCalves

ASIC Digital Design Manager, based in Portugal

Mari Puhakka

Software Engineering Manager, based in Finland

Exciting initiatives have been rolled out to promote women in engineering.


Diversity and inclusion is one of the most crucial aspects in STEM. 

Sonia GonCalves, ASIC Digital Design Manager, has been curious about ‘how to make things’ since she was a child. She works at Synopsys in Portugal.

After graduating from the University of Algarve in Portugal with a degree in engineering – just one of two girls – she went to work in electronics.

“I started as a digital designer in 2008,” she says, “and I was happy to be in a big team. It was tough at the beginning as I was a girl in a man’s world. You had to be extra willing to show you could do it. 

“It is very exciting to be always on the edge of technology and innovation”

Sonia is now involved in building a new product involving connecting neurons in the brains of robots which is very challenging but exciting. “At Synopsys, I progressed to manager in 2016, and have had the opportunity to invest and grow my team.”

“I work with people from diverse cultures – Egypt, India, Canada etc. You respect each other’s culture and adapt,” she says.

Training and learning throughout your career is important, but we should look into building the diversity already among young people and in schools.

Sonia has been involved in the company’s Women in Leadership programme. “We gathered a lot of women, brainstormed ideas, attended conferences and ran peer coaching meetings.”

“We closely collaborate with universities, creating internships, summer jobs, master projects and a special contest for girls – ‘Girls Go Engineering’. I also visit universities in Lisbon and speak about what I do,” she says.

Learning to code

Mari Puhakka is a Software Engineering Manager at the Software Integrity Group. “Ten years ago, I was working for a research group at university,” she says. 

“It was then that I learned to code. There was a job opening that matched my skills at that time. I had recently graduated and chose the path of going with the industry instead of an academic career.”

In the last decade, Mari has grown from a hands-on software developer to becoming part of the management team, which has quite different requirements. 

Importance of training and development 

“I have been offered training and other development opportunities for that path,” she says. “The ‘Ignite Your Impact’ programme I participate in brings together women in leadership roles from the whole company across the globe to exchange ideas, offer support and do training together in a safe environment. It has been valuable considering we are in a highly male-dominated business and it is not guaranteed you meet women on daily basis.”

“Training and learning throughout your career is important, but we should look into building the diversity already among young people and in schools,” says Mari. “Technology is so broad that there are considerably more touch points today for girls to get interested in. We must do better at explaining the connection between basic mathematics, English and physics skills, to the possible application areas.”

“Quite often, software industry teams are organised into smaller responsibility areas,” she says. “My team, on the other hand, works on the full stack, so to speak. We have a team of diverse gender and nationalities.”

“I believe that kind of diversity helps to keep up conversation and forces us to consider and brainstorm before reaching a solid decision.”

“When recruiting, I try to build on the diversity already in the job description and we strive to have a diverse shortlist of candidates for every job we are recruiting for. It is very easy to stay in a bubble with people with same education, gender and similar career paths, but it’s far more rewarding to build an inclusive culture for diverse perspectives.”

Key facts about Synopsys

We value diversity, different perspectives, and new ideas and embrace everyone from enthusiastic learners to seasoned innovators who share our vision for the world of Smart Everything. We work to strengthen communities, encourage employee engagement and inspire a new generation of technology leaders. We are committed to making technology smarter and safer, from silicon to software.

Author: Virginia Blackburn

“It’s amazing to use innovative technology to make dramatic changes in real life”

iStock / Getty Images Plus / Artem PeretiatkoSponsored by:

Yuhe Qin

Maths and Stats at UCL, post grad at Imperial

yqin47@bloomberg.net 

I’m Yuhe, and I am a data analyst in the Global Data Department at Bloomberg. 

Mathematics has always been my favourite subject. I enjoy resolving problems through different approaches and am attracted by how models can resolve complicated real-life scenarios.

I studied Mathematics and Statistical Science for my bachelor’s degree and Risk Management and Financial Engineering for my Master’s. 

The analytical, critical thinking and problem-solving skills obtained in my degree are transferable in many different areas. 

Team-working skills through many collaborative projects, presentation skills and project management skills can also be applied in most roles. 

STEM degrees are great because they give you more insight into the latest technologies and innovations. 

They make sure you can adapt to the rapid changes within technology, and help you to be more rational when dealing with many problems in real life.

STEM degrees are great because they give you more insight into the latest technologies and innovations.

Maths is a good starting point if you want to be a data analyst 

To become a data analyst, I really recommend learning mathematics and statistics. 

You will gain a firm understanding of how to interpret and analyse data, and the ability to refine your logic to solve problems. 

Data can be easily misinterpreted, so it is important to be sceptical and think through before reaching a final logic.

I also recommend learning some programming languages, such as python or R. They are very useful when conducting analysis on large datasets and improve the efficiency of analysis. 

The application of skills is also very important. Instead of focusing on more theoretical knowledge, I recommend learning by doing. 

Being a woman working in data isn’t something I tend to notice

Being a woman working in data isn’t something I tend to notice at Bloomberg. Men and women are given equal opportunities and everyone’s ideas are appreciated and supported. Now, I just want to leverage my skills to bring great impact in this industry. I want to improve on my technical skills further and work on projects with innovative technology – it is developing so fast!

Author: Yuhe Qin

Tackling gender diversity in cyber security

iStock / Getty Images Plus / GaudiLabSponsored by:

James Gray

Managing Director, Cyber & Intelligence 

Gender diversity must be more than just a buzzword that is thrown around; it needs to result in action – particularly within the cyber security sector.


Women only make up 11% of the global cyber workforce. Here in the UK, the problem is even more acute, with the proportion of women in the sector standing at just 8%, one of the world’s lowest.

As the demand for individuals with cyber security skills grows, organisations are depriving themselves of a considerable talent pool if they fail to recruit more women into cyber roles. 

Gender balanced teams create diversity of thought, which in turn leads to greater innovation. 

As hackers are constantly innovating and finding new ways to cause trouble, cyber professionals must be equally creative to counter their threats. 

So why does there continue to be a gender gap in the sector?

Making people aware of a cyber career

According to Emily and Kara, two of Raytheon UK’s Software Engineers, people may not be aware of the career opportunities that are available in cyber security, especially for those with the correct skills, regardless of background. 

“Often, people don’t choose a certain career path simply because they are not aware it exists and the work has never been demonstrated to them”, says Emily. 

Initiatives like the Women in Cyber Academy (WICA) are crucial in highlighting opportunities for women like Kara, who may not have considered a cyber career in the first place. 

“I am very new to software engineering, having spent many years working in academic research. I was considering career options outside of academia.

“I saw a post on social media advertising the ‘Women in Cyber Academy’”, she says. “It sounded like a fantastic opportunity.

“I got in touch with the organisers and was eventually invited to an engagement day to meet with potential employers. Following a very intensive 12-week course, I started work at Raytheon straight after”. 

Always be willing to learn

Despite initiatives such as WICA, the cyber sector can continue to feel daunting, and a distant aspiration for some. 

Often, it’s a perceived lack of technical experience, formal qualifications or contacts – these are the typical barriers that can hold people back from landing their dream cyber security role.

However, according to Emily, this should not put people off from applying for a cyber role

“My advice would be to just go for it! It is an extremely interesting and challenging career choice. Every day is different with new challenges and there are great opportunities to learn and use some exciting technologies.” 

This enthusiasm must be combined with a passion for learning how technology works and evolves, as well as how people interact with it. 

Many of the best software developers are self-taught, for example, using the likes of YouTube to experiment on their own personal projects and practicing how to code

“My main advice is to keep your tech skills up to scratch, make sure you have a good grasp of the fundamentals and show interest in engineering by completing your own side projects or learning in your spare time”, Emily adds. 

“As a software engineer, a good understanding of programming principles and being proficient in at least one programming language will really help you get started in this industry.”

Addressing the gender gap is a collective effort

So, on this International Women in Engineering Day, it is vital for us to consider the skills that everyone can offer in countering cyber threats, regardless of background, gender or experience. 

Whether you are more artistic or a scientific, your talent could be crucial in keeping the UK cyberspace safe and secure. 

Raytheon

With more than 30 years of experience in cyber, Raytheon UK protects critical information and infrastructure from complex threats and vulnerabilities – allowing customers to unlock the true value of their data and information. Our services encompass the following business areas: national security cyber; defence intelligence, space systems and digital. 

Author: James Gray

What it really means to be a female engineer

Image supplied by CumminsSponsored by:

Dawn S Whiting 

Global Project Leader – Engineering, Cummins Generator Technologies

Devna Devang Chauhan

Applied Controls – Technical Leader, Cummins Engine

Engineers can make a meaningful impact on the world, say two women from the industry, who are passionate about what they do and keen to attract more women to the sector.


Dawn Whiting believes that she has the best job in the world. As an engineer, she’s travelled the globe to work on projects in China, India, Brazil and the US, among other countries. 

“I don’t think people understand that this is where an engineering career can take you,” says Whiting. 

“The stereotype is that engineers are car mechanics, or someone who fixes your washing machine. Actually, we may have to work in high pressure environments and I’ve certainly been involved in some serious and challenging engineering issues. But I love that I’m always doing different projects and no two problems are the same.” 

There’s never a dull day in engineering, says Whiting. Plus, she admits it’s a good feeling to know that what she does can make a meaningful impact on the world.

As Global Project Leader – Engineering at Cummins Inc, Whiting is currently leading a team investigating new design innovations. 

Yet she started her career at the company as an apprentice, 22 years ago. “I knew I wanted to do something in science and had an interest in vintage transportation,” she says. “After college, the idea of earning while I was learning really worked for me.”

Now I understand I have a responsibility to promote women in the industry, because female role models are so important.

Dawn S Whiting 

Taking a lead from female role models

Back then, Whiting admits she wanted “to fit in and be one of the guys” in what was (and still is) a male-dominated industry. 

“But a few years later, I realised there was so much support among my colleagues for who I was and what I was doing. That led me to find out more about the company’s diversity and inclusion initiatives. 

“Now I understand I have a responsibility to promote women in the industry because female role models are so important.”

Whiting now regularly talks in schools about what it’s like to be a woman in engineering and is a highly visible member of the company’s Leading Inclusion for Technical group, which champions different cultures, backgrounds, religions, genders and sexualities. 

“Going into schools is a chance to educate children, parents and teachers about what we do, and showcase some of the cool stuff,” she says.

Of course, in a cutting-edge engineering role, you have to keep ahead of the knowledge curve so that your career can reach even greater heights. 

Take Whiting. In 2007, she graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering, funded by the company; and she’s now studying for her Master of Science in Global Product Development and Management. 

“Technology is changing really fast,” she explains. “As an engineer you have to keep up with practical learning and learn to apply it in your work.”

“This is an ever-changing field”

Devna Devang Chauhan, Applied Controls – Technical Leader at Cummins, agrees with Whiting’s assessment. 

“This is an ever-changing field,” she says. “That’s what keeps us on our toes and what makes it so exciting. There’s always so much to learn and so many challenges to solve.”

Chauhan believes that while talent is important, personal integrity is highly prized by companies in the industry. 

“I’ve been involved in a lot of recruitment drives for Cummins,” she says. “The great thing is that we’re always concentrating on the core skills a person has, rather than how much they know on a technical level.”

Chauhan, who joined Cummins as a graduate in 2014, manages a team involved in developing the software that controls the engines the company designs and manufactures. 

Like Whiting, she is a strong advocate for women in engineering and heavily involved in networking activities. 

“Engaging girls and young women is one of the best ways to attract more females into engineering,” she says. 

“If they can see, talk and listen to someone who is just like them, they’ll want to find out more about the job and what it’s like to work as a woman in STEM. That will help change mindsets.”

For any young woman thinking of studying STEM or going into a STEM career, Chauhan’s advice is: go for it — and don’t give up if things get tough. “In today’s society, things are changing for women,” she says. “It’s happening in STEM, too, slowly and steadily — but it ishappening. So if you’re always open to learning and happy to take on new challenges, then you can achieve anything you want in this industry.”

Author: Tony Greenway

“You don’t have to know what career you want; STEM skills are very transferable”

iStock / Getty Images Plus / StockRocketSponsored by:

Azalea Micottis

Chemistry at Imperial

amicottis@bloomberg.net

I’m Azalea and I work within the Bloomberg Analytics department, where I specialise in equity functionalities. 

I often collaborate across other teams and departments, to help make a positive impact for our clients. 

I love that I have the flexibility to propose innovative ideas that can benefit the department – and then implement and manage these projects myself. 

For anyone that has a passion for the sciences, I would strongly recommend a STEM degree.

My Dad inspired me into STEM

The main figure who has inspired me academically, throughout my childhood and today, is my Dad. So, encouraging females in these kinds of areas from a young age might help inspire more women to consider STEM career pathways, too. 

My degree in chemistry provided me with a skill set that was transferable outside of the subject. 

The main concepts lent heavily on logic, a solid analytical background, and the ability to interpret and deliver results. 

Today, these are all skills that I draw from in my day-to-day work.

Be open about the career opportunities out there

My STEM degree at university allowed me to build on my analytical capabilities, which can be transferred across a wide range of other disciplines. 

Not everyone knows exactly what kind of career they intend on following, but having a background in a STEM subject can help unlock doors outside of academia in many different areas. 

For anyone that has a passion for the sciences, I would strongly recommend a STEM degree . 

Deciding the career path can be very tricky and can take a lot of time! I have ended up on a pathway that I did not anticipate initially, but this was mostly down to being open to opportunities and applying for different types of internships, work experience, and networking to deepen my understanding of the industries that interested me. 

I learned about my current role at Bloomberg through LinkedIn. I would give this advice to anyone looking to follow a similar career to my own.

I enjoy working with financial data, and in the future, can see myself developing my skills in Python and transitioning to a more quantitative role.

Author: Azalea Micottis

“I’m passionate about data and problem-solving”

iStock / Getty Images Plus / SeventyFourSponsored by:

Maria Teixeira

Maths and Stats at Universidade de Aveiro (PRT)

mteixeira24@bloomberg.net

I’m Maria and I’m a data specialist in the Power and Gas Global Data team at Bloomberg. 

My role is to ensure the discoverability, high quality and completeness of Bloomberg’s data. The core of my work is to optimise our processes and product knowledge.

A passion for innovation, collaboration and sustainability drives our teams and individuals. 

I’m always looking for ways to improve our data and processes, in order to innovate and make them more sustainable. 

This can only be achieved as a team. The diversity of people and how well we collaborate makes all the difference.

A STEM degree opens the door to a range of career opportunities. It’s the perfect starting point to follow almost any career that you may want to pursue.

I love how much knowledge data gives you

I aim to become a leader of a data or product team, where I can play a key role in the decision-making process and help others to develop. 

I’ve always been passionate about data because there’s so much knowledge you can derive from it. 

My advice is: do your research. Find a job role that suits your skills and interests, and don’t be afraid to apply for it. 

Go the extra mile, speak to friends or someone on LinkedIn; try to learn as much as you can about the role you are interested in.

How I got here

I have a bachelor’s degree in Mathematics and a Master’s in Mathematics and Applications. The desire to explore and develop my problem-solving skills was my main motivator. 

I developed a wide set of skills that gave me a solid foundation to pursue a variety of different opportunities. 

Critical thinking, problem solving and programming skills are definitely my top three, as they are highly valuable in the job market.

A STEM degree opens the door to a range of career opportunities. It’s the perfect starting point to follow almost any career that you may want to pursue.

Author: Maria Teixeira

Insights from three software engineers

Sponsored by:

Katie Worton 

Graduate Engineer, Cambridge 

Why did you choose a degree in computer science?

I really enjoy problem solving and thinking outside the box. A computer science degree gives you the skill set to solve difficult problems creatively, so it was the perfect choice for me!

What are your key responsibilities? 

Writing test code and debugging CPU (central processing unit) designs. Since I am still learning my way around, I’ve learnt not to be afraid to ask for help when I am stuck. I am surrounded by many clever people, so this is a great hands-on way for me to learn.

Would you recommend a career in engineering and technology?

Yes, I would recommend a career in engineering and technology – it is an extremely rewarding career path, with many different areas to learn and explore!

How are you helping to shape the future?

In my job, I test and debug new CPU designs, helping the designers fix problems. This ensures the CPUs that surround us in our day-to-day lives are both reliable and secure.

Outside of work, I take part in volunteering opportunities such as Code First: Girls – a not-for-profit group who teach women programming skills. Here I can give back, teaching and inspiring the next generation of women in tech!

Caitlin Buchan 

Software Engineering Manager – IOT at Arm, Glasgow 

With a degree in biology with genetics, how did your career pathway lead you to becoming a software engineering manager?

My biology dissertation was lab-based and, halfway through, I realised it wasn’t for me. I then had a few years’ jumping between a variety of jobs (running a B&B, lifeguard, student loans assessor) before deciding to go back to university to move into technology. 

This allowed me to get a job as a junior software developer, and from there I worked my way up to software engineering manager.

Why did you decide you wanted to move into technology?

I wanted a career in which I could learn something new every day and I felt that the speed at which technology changes would ensure that I always had a new challenge to take on.

Is it a challenge to be a woman in science, technology, engineering and maths?

At times it can be, mostly because, typically, software development is a male dominated environment, and people subconsciously deal best with other people who are like them. I think the more diverse a workplace, the better the environment is for everyone.

How are you helping to shape the future?

I think the way I’m trying to help shape the future is by creating an atmosphere where everyone feels comfortable and confident enough to speak up to share their ideas and opinions. 

I believe that there’s no such thing as a stupid question and, in fact, some questions that you may feel silly asking could be the key to a new solution or a different direction.

Nadia Noormohamed 

Graduate Software Engineer – Manchester 

What do you most enjoy about your role as a software engineer?

I am always solving problems, researching and learning new things. It’s an exciting feeling for me when getting closer to a solution and even more so, when it’s found. 

Usually, problems can be solved in more than one way, allowing me to have the freedom to be creative and have a sense of ownership over the solution. 

How did your computer science degree help with your career path?

I was introduced to many different areas of computer science during my degree, which helped me to figure out my interests. 

I opted to study modules that sounded novel to me, like quantum computing. I found that I really enjoyed programming and learning about how computers work at the lower levels of abstraction, which is why I decided to work for Arm.

What advice would you give girls choosing a degree?

Choose a degree based on what interests you. Think about where your strengths lie and the job prospects that come with the degree. 

If you are interested in studying a STEM degree, I fully recommend it. The job prospects are usually very good and they open up doors to many rewarding jobs – definitely look into computer science!

How are you helping to shape the future?

I like to help with events involving younger people to inspire and excite them about technology.

I get the motivation to help with these sessions to make young girls realise technology is something they could be passionate about!

arm.com/careers |  Twitter: @LifeAtArm |  Instagram: @arm | #LifeAtArm #WeAreArm

Author: Arm

“I’m cleaning up the Thames for future generations”

Sponsored by:

Bianca Wheeler (pictured)

Construction Engineer

As a young girl Bianca Wheeler dreamt of being an architect or chef, but once she’d had a taste of a major construction project, her mind was made up.


“I’ve just always been interested in design and the way things are built,” says the 21-year-old.

Following schoolwork experience on Crossrail, Bianca chose subjects to put her on a path into construction. 

She started as a Civil Engineering Apprentice on Tideway, four days a week on site, and one attending college. 

Bianca is now a Construction Engineer on the ‘super sewer,’ a 25km-long tunnel being constructed beneath the River Thames to help tackle the millions of tonnes of raw sewage that overflow into London’s waterway each year.

The tunnel will intercept these overspills, cleaning up the river for future generations. 

Coinciding with Women in Engineering Day, Tideway is highlighting those who have inspired their own inspirational women on this vast project. 

Every day is different and there are always new challenges to overcome.

Bianca chose Fiona Keenaghan who was one of the two first apprentices to join the Tideway project, which has since awarded over 100 apprenticeships. 

Fiona became a mentor from day one in 2016 when the women were paired together as buddies.

“I admired Fiona’s confidence both on-site and in the office, and aspired to one day be like that,” commented Bianca. 

“Fiona has always been a great role model and I look forward to our paths crossing again.” 

For now, Bianca is revelling in her role. “Every day is different and there are always new challenges to overcome,” she adds.https://player.vimeo.com/video/429627441?dnt=1&app_id=122963

Discover more about the inspirational women building the Super Sewer.  Follow Tideway on social media: @TidewayLondon and discover our educational resources at www.tideway.london/womeninconstruction.Young people can chat directly with women working on the project at I’m a Scientist’s Summer Zone on June 23.  

Author: Bianca Wheeler

Ways to forge a fascinating career in engineering

iStock / Getty Images Plus / Martinan

Elizabeth Donnelly

CEO, Women’s Engineering Society

Engineering offers a range of opportunities across a vast array of sectors. More women are needed in these roles so that their talents can help build a more sustainable world.


At the last count, there were 6.1 million engineering jobs in the UK — but only 12.3% of the people in those jobs were female. 

It’s high time that this depressing statistic improved, says Elizabeth Donnelly, CEO of the Women’s Engineering Society (WES), a charity and a professional network of women engineers. 

Part of the problem is that engineering is usually associated with the tired stereotype of oily rags, wrenches and hard hats. Yet it’s a subject that offers myriad opportunities across a range of industries, insists Donnelly. 

“Engineers can be found in every sector, from architecture and biomedicine to IT and sportswear development,” she says. “Engineering is everywhere. You name it, and it probably has a form of engineering behind it.”

Female engineers needed to help deliver a more sustainable future

The truth is that women’s talents are needed now more than ever, particularly if the United Nation’s member states are to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) they’ve identified for a better, more sustainable world. 

These include providing clean water and sanitation for all; funding projects that provide basic infrastructure; and creating sustainable cities and communities. 

Delivering these goals by 2030 is going to require top-flight engineering skills from both men and women, notes Donnelly. 

“Engineers are innovative problem-solvers,” she says. “They’re the ones devising solutions to the challenges the world is facing, be it climate change or the COVID-19 pandemic.”

At the last count, there were 6.1 million engineering jobs in the UK — but only 12.3% of the people in those jobs were female. 

A recent article from the World Economic Forum points out that “building a more sustainable world will require more women engineers” — a sentiment that Donnelly wholeheartedly agrees with. After all, it makes no sense to exclude half of the available talent pool because of their gender. 

“Women bring a different perspective to any situation,” she says. “I heard one example recently of a tool-setting machine that took all day to reset because it was so heavy. So, a group of female engineers got together and developed a system that allowed the machine to be reset in 90 minutes without any heavy lifting. They came at the problem from a different direction. 

“More women are needed in engineering because the joy of a balanced team is that it offers both perspectives and more co-operative working.”

The available pathways into engineering careers are changing

Donnelly hopes that more visible female role models will explode gender stereotypes and demonstrate to young women that engineering is a rewarding career option. 

She points to high achieving women such as Natalie Desty, a maritime engineer; Jessica Noble, a jewellery designer; and Abbie Hutty, a spacecraft structures engineer. 

All have different stories about how they found their way into their respective industries.

“Generally, the route into engineering has been via university with a general engineering or a speciality engineering subject, and then a specialist post-grad,” says Donnelly. But that’s changing. 

“What we’re finding now, particularly with the government’s Apprenticeship Levy, is that more young people are joining organisations as apprentices and then doing degrees as part of their apprenticeships. That means they’re earning so won’t end up in debt, and they get hands-on experience, which companies like.”

Donnelly would advise any young woman to seriously consider an engineering career, whatever pathway they take. 

“I’d tell them to go for it,” she says. “The industry is still hiring and can offer salaries of around £50,000 – £60,000. That’s something you don’t see in many other professions, so it’s incredibly lucrative. Plus, because you’re continually solving different problems, every day is different.”

Author: Tony Greenway

Women are needed to solve society’s greatest challenges

Helen Wollaston 

Chief Executive, WISE, the campaign for gender balance in STEM 

WISE, the campaign for gender balance in STEM, looks at why diversity and inclusion are more important than ever. 


The recent global pandemic highlights the vital role science, technology, engineering and mathematics play in the world today. 

From scientists working on life-saving tests and vaccines, IT specialists providing technology to allow us to stay in touch, technicians and engineers manufacturing medical equipment, to epidemiologists and data scientists advising the Government – never before have STEM professionals been more in the public eye. 

One million women now work in STEM

In 2019, we reached the significant milestone of one million women working in STEM roles in the UK. 

By sharing stories of women using science and technology in real life situations, such as saving lives at risk during a pandemic, we can inspire and motivate more girls and women to choose STEM, so that they too can make a difference. 

Working together to reach girls

This year we launched our ‘1 of the million’ women campaign, putting faces and stories to the women in the UK STEM workforce. 

Women can join the campaign by uploading a photo and a few words about their job for sharing on social media. 

My Skills My Life

They can also add their profile to the ‘My Skills My Life’ online careers platform, which helps girls discover their personality type and explore exciting opportunities in STEM that match their strengths, skills and interests. 

STEM ambassadors use My Skills My Life to inspire girls as part of their outreach and engagement activities. 

Last year, WISE hosted ‘STEM Accord’, a partnership to co-ordinate STEM activities to reach more girls and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. 

Next year, via our involvement in a ‘Gender Balance in Computing’ project, led by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, we will train women working in tech to trial My Skills My Life in primary schools. 

Only by working in partnership, evaluating the impact of our programmes and scaling up those that are proven to make a positive difference will we make progress at the scale and pace required. 

‘Ten Steps’ to transform organisational culture 

We must also support employers in developing workplace cultures where everyone is made to feel welcome, supported and able to fulfil their potential. 

WISE’s ‘Ten Steps’ address the underlying issues for women in a traditionally male-dominated organisational culture. 

We offer practical advice and guidance to employers, based on real examples, on the steps they can take to transform their culture. 

Organisations may be doing one or two of the right things, but what makes a real difference is a systematic approach throughout the business, led from the top. 

Companies using the Ten Steps for three to four years show an average improvement of 10% recruitment, retention and progression of women into leadership roles. 

The benefit of training programmes

We are seeing an encouraging growth in returner and retraining programmes from employers, which attract a lot of interest from women and work well for employers seeking to attract and retain talented people. 

We would like to see training programmes available to women across the UK who would like to move into a more technical role – which means connecting education, training and work placements on a national scale. 

In the long-term, we need to improve the relevance and appeal of computing to girls at an early age. In the short-term, to fill immediate skills shortages, we should offer more accessible pathways for women to retrain to work in technology. 

Technology qualifications open doors to work anywhere and provide exciting opportunities to work on projects that have such a fundamental impact on all our lives – whether it be a global pandemic or climate change. 

Author: Helen Wollaston

Why AI needs female developers

Photo credit: Getty imagesSponsored by:

Carolyn Herzog 

EVP General Counsel and Chair of AI Ethics Working Group, Arm 

Artificial intelligence is already making key decisions in our lives – whether it’s your smartphone adjusting its lens to snap the ideal portrait, or vehicle making an automated emergency stop – we need methods to identify and place limits on bias in computer algorithms.


New applications for AI are created every day – an exciting frontier for technologists. But new developments in AI have also illuminated a novel problem: human bias reproduced in computer algorithms.

At scale, these biases could contribute to an increasingly lopsided world where the benefits of a modern, digital society are not inclusive. 

As the General Counsel and lead for AI ethics initiatives at Arm, a foundational IP processor technology company, I spend a great deal of time thinking about technology, good governance and how AI could and should impact humanity.

To realise the full benefits of AI, it must be built in an inclusive way and be trusted by everyone. Global governments have begun to explore these considerations, and the EU has even drawn up proposals for regulating AI in situations where there is risk of harm.

The price of less-inclusive AI

We’re calling for a vigorous industry-wide effort to take responsibility for a new set of ethical design system principles through the establishment of an AI Trust Manifesto

A key principle in the manifesto states every effort should be made to eliminate discriminatory bias in designing and developing AI decision systems. 

Women are the largest underrepresented group as a whole in the world, which means we will need to have an inclusive team of people – including women of diverse backgrounds and women of colour – involved in engineering AI.

According to STEM Women, the UK saw little to no change in the percentage of woman engineering and technology graduates from 2015 to 2018. In fact, only 15% of graduates between those years were women. 

That brings up an important consideration – AI is programmed to mimic human thought and rationale. If programmed by a non-diverse workforce, it can seriously hinder widespread technology development and implementation. 

One example of this is facial recognition. If trained on only Caucasian faces, for instance, that oversight could result in AI misidentifying minorities during facial recognition scans. 

There is wide acknowledgement that the careful use of training data is crucial in ensuring that discrimination and bias do not enter AI systems to the extent that the implementation of such data may be illegal or unfair. 

Engineering change

If we are to give machines the ability to make life-changing decisions, we must put in place structures to reveal the decision-making behind the outcomes, providing transparency and reassurance. 

Companies must take the lead by setting high standards, promoting trust and ensuring they maintain a diverse staff trained in AI ethics.

We must continue to explore different solutions to the complex issue of ethical AI decision making. One possibility is building a review process that incorporates the key pillars of AI ethics, including issues of bias and transparency, to ensure products and technologies available in the marketplace receive appropriate prior approval for adherence to ethical standards. 

This type of system would help consumers trust that the technology has been anti-bias trained and produced with fairness and inclusivity methodologies. 

To fully realise this reality, it’s critical for girls, women and the greater technology industry to use their voices and networks to increase female participation in STEM and AI. 

In all its forms, AI has the potential to contribute to an unprecedented level of prosperity and productivity. 

To do that, it must be built on a foundation of trust by the diverse range of people for whom the technology will ultimately be catered toward – including women. 

arm.com/careers |  Twitter: @LifeAtArm |  Instagram: @arm | #LifeAtArm #WeAreArm

Author: Carolyn Herzog

Is the maternal wall causing a critical leak in the STEM pipeline?

Isabel Torres

Co-founder, Mothers in Science

Despite continued efforts to increase participation of women in STEM, gender differences in career progression remain mostly unchanged. Is motherhood a major factor contributing to the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields?


Women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, and the gender gap widens as they climb the career ladder. 

This so-called ‘leaky pipeline’ can start even before undergraduate studies, but the bottleneck occurs after women complete their education and enter the STEM workforce. 

In STEM academic research, more women are earning PhDs than ever before, reaching parity or even outnumbering men in some STEM disciplines, yet the number of female tenured professors remains stubbornly low. 

Gender discrimination and implicit bias are widely studied mechanisms driving the gender gap in STEM, but less attention is paid to motherhood as a contributor factor. 

Why is it important to speak about motherhood? 

The career paths of women and men diverge in opposite directions soon after having children, with fathers being unaffected or receiving a career boost, while mothers may move to part-time employment, change career path, stay in a lower-responsibility role, or exit the labour force altogether. 

Mothers not only have to face challenges for being women, but they also encounter additional obstacles – pregnancy and motherhood bias and discrimination, also known as ‘maternal wall’. 

Nearly twice as many women as men report having fewer children than desired because they pursued a STEM career.

This widespread form of gender discrimination affects the career trajectories of women across most professional sectors, including STEM. 

A recent study showed that 42% of mothers and 15% of fathers in the US leave full-time STEM employment within three years of having children. 

Female academics have fewer children than women in other professional sectors, and women who have children soon after their PhD are much less likely to get tenure than their male counterparts. Is motherhood driving women away from their STEM careers? 

Mothers frequently earn less than childless women and fathers

There is ample evidence that mothers in every professional sector earn lower salaries than childless women and fathers (called ‘motherhood penalty’). 

In STEM, a US study found that female PhD holders suffered an 11% pay penalty after having a child, while fathers saw no decline in their earnings. 

Women with children are also less likely to be hired or promoted than fathers and childless women and are perceived as less competent by their employers. 

42% of mothers and 15% of fathers in the US leave full-time STEM employment within three years of having children. 

Assumptions that mothers are less available because of family responsibilities means they are often excluded from career advancement opportunities like conferences and out-of-office hours meetings. 

Social expectations based on gender stereotypes put pressure on women to be primary caregivers and prioritise family over career. 

Women carry most of the childcare and housework burden, and this is an enormous disadvantage in male-dominated STEM fields, which have an inflexible work culture that demands long working hours and round-the-clock availability. 

Lack of affordable childcare also pushes women into part-time roles or out of STEM employment- again due to internalised social expectations that women should be primary caregivers. 

Can women have it all? How to eradicate the motherhood stigma

Career progression divergencies between women and men after childbirth are often explained by differences in personal choice and ‘biology’ – and these motherhood myths conceal the real underlying causes. 

A large body of evidence clearly shows that normalised discrimination and subtle bias against women with children, combined with internalised gender stereotypes and an inflexible, family-unfriendly work culture, are the invisible forces putting pressure on women to step back from their career track. 

Mothers in Science is a non-profit organisation that aims to advocate for workplace equality in STEM and raise awareness of the barriers preventing women with children from progressing in their STEM careers. 

Among other initiatives, we have created an online community where young mothers in STEM can find relatable role models and share their experiences juggling motherhood and a STEM career, and we are conducting a global survey to study the impact of parenthood on scientific productivity and career choices in STEM. 

42% of mothers and 15% of fathers in the US leave full-time STEM employment within 3 years of having children, and nearly twice as many women as men report having fewer children than desired because they pursued a STEM career.

Author: Isabel Torres

It’s never too late to start a career in tech

Debbie Forster 

CEO, Tech Talent Charter 

Why women of any age can consider a career in tech, and how companies can and should help make this a reality.


Addressing the tech gender gap

In 2019, HP and the Fawcett Society collaborated on research which found up to 70% of young women would be interested in a tech career. This was wonderful news and, I believe, reflects the efforts made in recent years to inspire school and college age girls to embrace a passion for technology. 

Partner organisations like Tech She Can and the Institute of Coding are working tirelessly to inspire a generation of tech-savvy young women to help address the pitiful gender gap that persists in the UK’s tech sector.

But what about this working generation? The women who do not have tech qualifications, or started down a different career path? Is it too late for them?

Women without tech backgrounds can’t see themselves in tech

Lack of confidence is a major obstacle to encouraging women into tech, with around 25% of those polled in the research saying they didn’t study STEM subjects because they didn’t think they could do it. 32% of women not currently in technical roles said they felt they didn’t have the appropriate qualifications to make the move. But encouragingly, the HP research also found that 45% of women expressed willingness to retrain in a technical job.

This tells us that companies seeking to access that untapped talent pool can’t simply cross their fingers and hope women show up. Our research shows that the best way to drive acquisition and retention of women into tech roles is through proactive retraining, mentoring and returners programmes, making it unmistakably clear that women are welcome and in demand.

Companies need to create returners and retraining programmes to attract mid-career women into tech

At the Tech Talent Charter, we work with some of the most progressive organisations on this front, in multiple sectors. These companies know the value of championing women in tech roles, and the benefits this brings to their products, their teams and their businesses.

We recently asked them to send us interesting examples of women who had found alternative routes into tech careers in their organisations. We received more than 300 stories inside a week. Women with backgrounds as teachers, marketeers, pastry-chefs, or stay at home mums had found the courage to take that leap and follow their dreams. We were so inspired by their remarkable stories that we’re running a campaign later this year to publicise the opportunities available for women to switch to a tech role. 

One such woman, is Maryam Qureshi, who discovered her early career as a teacher was not where her true passions lay; “Although I loved teaching, I quickly realised my real passion lay in a more technical field. I took a leap of faith with a role at a heat recovery company. I was then head hunted and introduced to the fascinating world of 3D printing. I had no previous experience in the sector, but I was totally captivated by the industry and my passion for innovation came to the fore. I am currently a technical consultant at HP, mobilising the UK’s fleet of 3D printers to help rapidly make needed healthcare supplies – such as ventilator parts, adjustable mask straps and face shields.”

The more companies take direct action to attract women to apply for tech roles in their organisation, the quicker they will access this remarkable talent and help close the gender gap. Because I know from personal experience, that it’s never too late to start a career in tech.

To address the tech gender gap now, companies must proactively connect with women who don’t have tech backgrounds and create alternative routes into tech for them, such as returners and retraining programmes. See the Open Playbook at www.techtalentcharter.co.uk for best practice advice on how to do this. 

Author: Debbie Forster



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 24, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:   https://www.womeninstem.co.uk/engineering-maths/engineering-a-diverse-sector/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomensAgenda, #WomenPower, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenInTech, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSales, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInPower, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInMath, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInAI, #WomenInAG, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenEntrepreneurs, #WomenEmpowerment, #WhoRunTheWorld, #Visualization, #Programming, #OptionB, #Mindfulness, #MindfulLeadership, #MachineLearning, #LeanInTogether, #LeanIn, #Inclusion, #GenderEquality, #Equity, #Economists, #Diversity, #DataScience, #Data, #BeTheChange, #ArtificialIntelligence

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Data Scientists, The 5 Graph Algorithms That You Should Know | Rahul Agarwal | Medium

Featured

Because Graph Analytics is the future

Rahul Agarwal

We as data scientists have gotten quite comfortable with Pandas or SQL or any other relational database.

We are used to seeing our users in rows with their attributes as columns. But does the real world really behave like that?

In a connected world, users cannot be considered as independent entities. They have got certain relationships between each other and we would sometimes like to include such relationships while building our machine learning models.

Now while in a relational database, we cannot use such relations between different rows(users), in a graph database it is fairly trivial to do that.

In this post, I am going to be talking about some of the most important graph algorithms you should know and how to implement them using Python.

Also, here is a Graph Analytics for Big Data course on Coursera by UCSanDiego which I highly recommend to learn the basics of graph theory.


1. Connected Components

A graph with 3 connected components

We all know how clustering works?

You can think of Connected Components in very layman’s terms as a sort of a hard clustering algorithm which finds clusters/islands in related/connected data.

As a concrete example: Say you have data about roads joining any two cities in the world. And you need to find out all the continents in the world and which city they contain.

How will you achieve that? Come on give some thought.

The connected components algorithm that we use to do this is based on a special case of BFS/DFS. I won’t talk much about how it works here, but we will see how to get the code up and running using Networkx.

Applications

From a Retail Perspective: Let us say, we have a lot of customers using a lot of accounts. One way in which we can use the Connected components algorithm is to find out distinct families in our dataset.

We can assume edges(roads) between CustomerIDs based on same credit card usage, or same address or same mobile number, etc. Once we have those connections, we can then run the connected component algorithm on the same to create individual clusters to which we can then assign a family ID.

We can then use these family IDs to provide personalized recommendations based on family needs. We can also use this family ID to fuel our classification algorithms by creating grouped features based on family.

From a Finance Perspective: Another use case would be to capture fraud using these family IDs. If an account has done fraud in the past, it is highly probable that the connected accounts are also susceptible to fraud.

The possibilities are only limited by your own imagination.

Code

We will be using the Networkx module in Python for creating and analyzing our graphs.

Let us start with an example graph which we are using for our purpose. Contains cities and distance information between them.

Graph with Some random distances

We first start by creating a list of edges along with the distances which we will add as the weight of the edge:

edgelist = [['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt', 85], ['Mannheim', 'Karlsruhe', 80], ['Erfurt', 'Wurzburg', 186], ['Munchen', 'Numberg', 167], ['Munchen', 'Augsburg', 84], ['Munchen', 'Kassel', 502], ['Numberg', 'Stuttgart', 183], ['Numberg', 'Wurzburg', 103], ['Numberg', 'Munchen', 167], ['Stuttgart', 'Numberg', 183], ['Augsburg', 'Munchen', 84], ['Augsburg', 'Karlsruhe', 250], ['Kassel', 'Munchen', 502], ['Kassel', 'Frankfurt', 173], ['Frankfurt', 'Mannheim', 85], ['Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 217], ['Frankfurt', 'Kassel', 173], ['Wurzburg', 'Numberg', 103], ['Wurzburg', 'Erfurt', 186], ['Wurzburg', 'Frankfurt', 217], ['Karlsruhe', 'Mannheim', 80], ['Karlsruhe', 'Augsburg', 250],["Mumbai", "Delhi",400],["Delhi", "Kolkata",500],["Kolkata", "Bangalore",600],["TX", "NY",1200],["ALB", "NY",800]]

Let us create a graph using Networkx:

g = nx.Graph()
for edge in edgelist:
g.add_edge(edge[0],edge[1], weight = edge[2])

Now we want to find out distinct continents and their cities from this graph.

We can now do this using the connected components algorithm as:

for i, x in enumerate(nx.connected_components(g)):
print("cc"+str(i)+":",x)
------------------------------------------------------------
cc0: {'Frankfurt', 'Kassel', 'Munchen', 'Numberg', 'Erfurt', 'Stuttgart', 'Karlsruhe', 'Wurzburg', 'Mannheim', 'Augsburg'}
cc1: {'Kolkata', 'Bangalore', 'Mumbai', 'Delhi'}
cc2: {'ALB', 'NY', 'TX'}

As you can see we are able to find distinct components in our data. Just by using Edges and Vertices. This algorithm could be run on different data to satisfy any use case that I presented above.


2. Shortest Path


Continuing with the above example only, we are given a graph with the cities of Germany and the respective distance between them.

You want to find out how to go from Frankfurt (The starting node) to Munchen by covering the shortest distance.

The algorithm that we use for this problem is called Dijkstra. In Dijkstra’s own words:

What is the shortest way to travel from Rotterdam to Groningen, in general: from given city to given city. It is the algorithm for the shortest path, which I designed in about twenty minutes. One morning I was shopping in Amsterdamwith my young fiancée, and tired, we sat down on the café terrace to drink a cup of coffee and I was just thinking about whether I could do this, and I then designed the algorithm for the shortest path. As I said, it was a twenty-minute invention. In fact, it was published in ’59, three years later. The publication is still readable, it is, in fact, quite nice. One of the reasons that it is so nice was that I designed it without pencil and paper. I learned later that one of the advantages of designing without pencil and paper is that you are almost forced to avoid all avoidable complexities. Eventually that algorithm became, to my great amazement, one of the cornerstones of my fame.

— Edsger Dijkstra, in an interview with Philip L. Frana, Communications of the ACM, 2001[3]

Applications

  • Variations of the Dijkstra algorithm is used extensively in Google Maps to find the shortest routes.
  • You are in a Walmart Store. You have different Aisles and distance between all the aisles. You want to provide the shortest pathway to the customer from Aisle A to Aisle D.
  • You have seen how LinkedIn shows up 1st-degree connections, 2nd-degree connections. What goes on behind the scenes?

Code

print(nx.shortest_path(g, 'Stuttgart','Frankfurt',weight='weight'))
print(nx.shortest_path_length(g, 'Stuttgart','Frankfurt',weight='weight'))
--------------------------------------------------------
['Stuttgart', 'Numberg', 'Wurzburg', 'Frankfurt']
503

You can also find Shortest paths between all pairs using:

for x in nx.all_pairs_dijkstra_path(g,weight='weight'):
print(x)
--------------------------------------------------------
('Mannheim', {'Mannheim': ['Mannheim'], 'Frankfurt': ['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt'], 'Karlsruhe': ['Mannheim', 'Karlsruhe'], 'Augsburg': ['Mannheim', 'Karlsruhe', 'Augsburg'], 'Kassel': ['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt', 'Kassel'], 'Wurzburg': ['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg'], 'Munchen': ['Mannheim', 'Karlsruhe', 'Augsburg', 'Munchen'], 'Erfurt': ['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Erfurt'], 'Numberg': ['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Numberg'], 'Stuttgart': ['Mannheim', 'Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Numberg', 'Stuttgart']})('Frankfurt', {'Frankfurt': ['Frankfurt'], 'Mannheim': ['Frankfurt', 'Mannheim'], 'Kassel': ['Frankfurt', 'Kassel'], 'Wurzburg': ['Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg'], 'Karlsruhe': ['Frankfurt', 'Mannheim', 'Karlsruhe'], 'Augsburg': ['Frankfurt', 'Mannheim', 'Karlsruhe', 'Augsburg'], 'Munchen': ['Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Numberg', 'Munchen'], 'Erfurt': ['Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Erfurt'], 'Numberg': ['Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Numberg'], 'Stuttgart': ['Frankfurt', 'Wurzburg', 'Numberg', 'Stuttgart']})....

3. Minimum Spanning Tree

An Undirected Graph and its MST on the right.

Now we have another problem. We work for a water pipe laying company or an internet fiber company. We need to connect all the cities in the graph we have using the minimum amount of wire/pipe. How do we do this?

An Undirected Graph and its MST on the right.

Applications

  • Minimum spanning trees have direct applications in the design of networks, including computer networks, telecommunications networks, transportation networks, water supply networks, and electrical grids (which they were first invented for)
  • MST is used for approximating the traveling salesman problem
  • Clustering — First construct MST and then determine a threshold value for breaking some edges in the MST using Intercluster distances and Intracluster distances.
  • Image Segmentation — It was used for Image segmentation where we first construct an MST on a graph where pixels are nodes and distances between pixels are based on some similarity measure(color, intensity, etc.)

Code

# nx.minimum_spanning_tree(g) returns a instance of type graph
nx.draw_networkx(nx.minimum_spanning_tree(g))
The MST of our graph.

As you can see the above is the wire we gotta lay.


4. Pagerank

FB User Graph

This is the page sorting algorithm that powered google for a long time. It assigns scores to pages based on the number and quality of incoming and outgoing links.

Applications

Pagerank can be used anywhere where we want to estimate node importance in any network.

  • It has been used for finding the most influential papers using citations.
  • Has been used by Google to rank pages
  • It can be used to rank tweets- User and Tweets as nodes. Create Link between user if user A follows user B and Link between user and Tweets if user tweets/retweets a tweet.
  • Recommendation engines

Code

For this exercise, we are going to be using Facebook data. We have a file of edges/links between facebook users. We first create the FB graph using:

# reading the datasetfb = nx.read_edgelist('../input/facebook-combined.txt', create_using = nx.Graph(), nodetype = int)

This is how it looks:

pos = nx.spring_layout(fb)import warnings
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore')plt.style.use('fivethirtyeight')
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (20, 15)
plt.axis('off')
nx.draw_networkx(fb, pos, with_labels = False, node_size = 35)
plt.show()
FB User Graph

Now we want to find the users having high influence capability.

Intuitively, the Pagerank algorithm will give a higher score to a user who has a lot of friends who in turn have a lot of FB Friends.

pageranks = nx.pagerank(fb)
print(pageranks)
------------------------------------------------------
{0: 0.006289602618466542,
1: 0.00023590202311540972,
2: 0.00020310565091694562,
3: 0.00022552359869430617,
4: 0.00023849264701222462,
........}

We can get the sorted PageRank or most influential users using:

import operator
sorted_pagerank = sorted(pageranks.items(), key=operator.itemgetter(1),reverse = True)
print(sorted_pagerank)
------------------------------------------------------
[(3437, 0.007614586844749603), (107, 0.006936420955866114), (1684, 0.0063671621383068295), (0, 0.006289602618466542), (1912, 0.0038769716008844974), (348, 0.0023480969727805783), (686, 0.0022193592598000193), (3980, 0.002170323579009993), (414, 0.0018002990470702262), (698, 0.0013171153138368807), (483, 0.0012974283300616082), (3830, 0.0011844348977671688), (376, 0.0009014073664792464), (2047, 0.000841029154597401), (56, 0.0008039024292749443), (25, 0.000800412660519768), (828, 0.0007886905420662135), (322, 0.0007867992190291396),......]

The above IDs are for the most influential users.

We can see the subgraph for the most influential user:

first_degree_connected_nodes = list(fb.neighbors(3437))
second_degree_connected_nodes = []
for x in first_degree_connected_nodes:
second_degree_connected_nodes+=list(fb.neighbors(x))
second_degree_connected_nodes.remove(3437)
second_degree_connected_nodes = list(set(second_degree_connected_nodes))subgraph_3437 = nx.subgraph(fb,first_degree_connected_nodes+second_degree_connected_nodes)pos = nx.spring_layout(subgraph_3437)node_color = ['yellow' if v == 3437 else 'red' for v in subgraph_3437]
node_size = [1000 if v == 3437 else 35 for v in subgraph_3437]
plt.style.use('fivethirtyeight')
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (20, 15)
plt.axis('off')nx.draw_networkx(subgraph_3437, pos, with_labels = False, node_color=node_color,node_size=node_size )
plt.show()
Our most influential user(Yellow)

5. Centrality Measures

There are a lot of centrality measures which you can use as features to your machine learning models. I will talk about two of them. You can look at other measures here.

Betweenness Centrality: It is not only the users who have the most friends that are important, the users who connect one geography to another are also important as that lets users see content from diverse geographies. Betweenness centrality quantifies how many times a particular node comes in the shortest chosen path between two other nodes.

Degree Centrality: It is simply the number of connections for a node.

Applications

Centrality measures can be used as a feature in any machine learning model.

Code

Here is the code for finding the Betweenness centrality for the subgraph.

pos = nx.spring_layout(subgraph_3437)
betweennessCentrality = nx.betweenness_centrality(subgraph_3437,normalized=True, endpoints=True)node_size = [v * 10000 for v in betweennessCentrality.values()]
plt.figure(figsize=(20,20))
nx.draw_networkx(subgraph_3437, pos=pos, with_labels=False,
node_size=node_size )
plt.axis('off')
You can see the nodes sized by their betweenness centrality values here. They can be thought of as information passers. Breaking any of the nodes with a high betweenness Centrality will break the graph into many parts.

Conclusion

In this post, I talked about some of the most influential graph algorithms that have changed the way we live.

With the advent of so much social data, network analysis could help a lot in improving our models and generating value.

And even understanding a little more about the world.

There are a lot of graph algorithms out there, but these are the ones I like the most. Do look into the algorithms in more detail if you like. In this post, I just wanted to get the required breadth into the area.

Let me know if you feel I have left your favorite algorithm in the comments.

Here is the Kaggle Kernel with the whole code.


If you want to read up more on Graph Algorithms here is a Graph Analytics for Big Data course on Coursera by UCSanDiego which I highly recommend to learn the basics of graph theory.


Thanks for the read. I am going to be writing more beginner-friendly posts in the future too. Follow me up at Medium or Subscribe to my blog to be informed about them. As always, I welcome feedback and constructive criticism and can be reached on Twitter @mlwhiz.

WRITTEN BY

Rahul Agarwal

Bridging the gap between Data Science and Intuition. Data Scientist @WalmartLabs. Data science communicator at mlwhiz and TDS. Connect on Twitter @mlwhiz



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 16, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source:  https://towardsdatascience.com/data-scientists-the-five-graph-algorithms-that-you-should-know-30f454fa5513

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



First American Woman to Walk in Space Now First Woman to Reach Deepest Point of Ocean | Doha Madani | NBC News

Featured

Former astronaut Kathy Sullivan returned Monday from Challenger Deep, the deepest known point on Earth at about 35,853 feet under the Western Pacific Ocean.

Dr. Kathy Sullivan and Victor Vescovo after their dive to Challenger Deep.

Dr. Kathy Sullivan and Victor Vescovo after their dive to Challenger Deep. Enrique Alvarez / EYOS Expeditions

By Doha Madani

Kathy Sullivan, America’s first female spacewalker, also became the first woman to reach the deepest known point of the ocean.

Sullivan dove to the bottom of the Challenger Deep and safely returned in her submersible vessel on Monday, according to EYOS Expeditions, the company that operated her expedition. She is now the eighth person to reach the depth, the lowest point in the Marianas Trench, which is about 35,853 feet under the Western Pacific Ocean surface.

A call was made between Sullivan’s vessel at the bottom of the ocean and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. The call was an homage to Sullivan’s other historic adventure, when she became the first American woman to walk in space in 1984.

Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan, 41-G mission specialist, uses binoculars for a magnified viewing of Earth through Challenger's forward cabin windows on Oct. 6, 1984.
Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan, 41-G mission specialist, uses binoculars for a magnified viewing of Earth through Challenger’s forward cabin windows on Oct. 6, 1984.Johnson Space Center / NASA
Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan checks the latch of the SIR-B antenna in the space shuttle Challenger's open cargo bay during her historic extravehicular activity (EVA) on Oct. 11, 1984.
Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan checks the latch of the SIR-B antenna in the space shuttle Challenger’s open cargo bay during her historic extravehicular activity (EVA) on Oct. 11, 1984.NASA

“As a hybrid oceanographer and astronaut this was an extraordinary day, a once in a lifetime day, seeing the moonscape of the Challenger Deep and then comparing notes with my colleagues on the ISS about our remarkable reusable inner-space outer-spacecraft,” Sullivan said in a press release.

Expedition leader Rob McCallum said it was amazing to set up the call between the two “spacecrafts.”

“Two groups of humans using cutting edge technology to explore the outer edges of our world,” McCallum said. “It highlighted the vast span of human endeavor while at the same time linking us close together as fellow explorers.”

The first two people to reach the Challenger Deep, located in the south end of the Mariana Trench about 190 miles southwest of Guam, were Don Walsh and Jacques Picard in 1960.

Dr. Kathy Sullivan and Victor Vescovo reviewing the plans before their dive to Challenger Deep.
Dr. Kathy Sullivan and Victor Vescovo reviewing the plans before their dive to Challenger Deep.Enrique Alvarez / EYOS Expeditions
Kathy Sullivan just completed her historic dive to become the first woman to reach the deepest point in the ocean and the first human to have been in space and at full ocean depth.
Kathy Sullivan just completed her historic dive to become the first woman to reach the deepest point in the ocean and the first human to have been in space and at full ocean depth.EYOS Expeditions

Victor Vescovo reached the bottom last year as part of an expedition team that made five dives in the Mariana Trench over the course of a week. Vescovo described the trench as “very peaceful” in an interview with Live Science last year.

“Honestly, toward the end, I simply turned the thrusters off, leaned back in the cockpit and enjoyed a tuna fish sandwich while I very slowly drifted just above the bottom of the deepest place on Earth, enjoying the view and appreciating what the team had done technically,” Vescovo said.

“Avatar” and “Titanic” filmmaker James Cameron broke the record for deepest solo dive in 2012 when he became the first person to reach the Challenger Deep alone.

Doha Madani

Doha Madani is a breaking news reporter for NBC News.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 16, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/first-american-woman-walk-space-now-first-woman-reach-deepest-n1228611

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



15 Women in European Fintech You Should Know | Isabel Woodford | Sifted

Featured

Meet Europe’s leading fintechs — and the women at the helm

By Isabel Woodford

Sweden’s Katherine Salisbury, Co-Founder of Qapital

European fintech has a noticeable lack of women in charge. But despite the shortage, there is a small handful of influential female chiefs and executives that merit coverage.

The following list showcases the women leading the most highly-valued fintechs in their respective countries, showcasing founders and c-suite execs*.

Given there is already a dedicated annual list of women in British fintech, we have chosen to focus on the five other European countries where fintech investment is rife.

Germany

Germany has a small but rich cluster of female founders and executives. Indeed, two of Germany’s nine fastest-growing fintechs — Penta and Billie — are cofounded by women.

Jessica Holzbach, cofounder and chief customer officer — Penta

Photo credit: FinX.
  • Penta is a digital business-banking app, like the UK’s Tide. It has raised over €35m to date and grew its headcount by 200% between Feb 2019 and 2020.
  • Holzbach was interviewed here about wanting to be the first female pope as a child, finding injustice in the fact a woman had never ever held that position.

Aiga Senftleben, cofounder and general counsel — Billie

  • Billie is an automated-invoicing platform for businesses. It has raised over €43.5m to date and had grown to over 100 people at the start of this year.
  • Within her role, Senftleben has spearhead a reduction in Billie’s gender pay gap, which currently sits at a humble 5%. She attributes this to a targeted effort to recruit women in leadership and senior positions, flexibility around work hours and monitoring salary changes.

Sofie Quidenus-Wahlforss, founder and chief executive — omni:us

  • Omni:us is a software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider for insurance companies, using artificial intelligence to read handwriting and to analyse bundles of data. It has raised over €53m so far.
  • Quidenus-Wahlforss featured on Forbes’ 2018 global list of Top 50 Women in Tech,  sitting “on the German Government advisory board for advanced technology and artificial intelligence”.

Georgie Smallwood, chief product officer — N26

  • N26 is a digital bank operating across several markets including the US, and is one of Europe’s fintech unicorns. It recently raised another $100m as an extension of its last round.
  • Smallwood moved to Berlin from Australia in 2018 and is now on N26’s c-suite, leading the product, design and user-research teams globally.

Sweden

For a country famed for its gender equality rating, Sweden has a surprisingly low number of fintech female leaders, with just 16% of its fintech executive roles held by women. Nonetheless, Sweden still has a strong pool of female talent given it is home to some of the most influential fintechs in Europe — a number of which have female executives. Newer fintechs like Dreams are also leading the way with a 50/50 gender ratio in its management team.

Katherine Salisbury, cofounder and chief strategy officer — Qapital

Sweden's Katherine Salisbury, Co-Founder of Qapital
  • Qapital is a banking app that helps people save, based on behavioural economics. Founded in 2013, it’s now got an estimated valuation of between €80m and €120m and has launched in the US. It became a pay-to-use service in 2018.
  • Salisbury was previously a lawyer, moving to Sweden from America in 2008 to launch her own sports agency before turning her mind to fintech.

Emma Rozada, cofounder — Bokio

  • Bokio is a leading Swedish automated accounting service, which recently announced another investment round with Creandum (a leading venture capital firm).
  • Rozada cofounded the company in 2012 as a salary-system, before mergingwith a bookkeeping platform in 2015 and eventually launching. Rozada served as chief design officer at Bokio until early 2018 and now sits on the company’s board. She has gone on to found three other companies alongside Bokio.

Erika Eliasson, deputy chief executive — Lendify

  • Lendify offers large personal loans to low-risk, local customers — undercutting neighbouring banks with lower interest fees. The startup has developed its own credit-scoring system and is now one of Sweden’s standout alternative lenders.
  • Eliasson began at Lendify as head of public affairs and head of savings but was promoted to deputy chief executive last November. She is also chairman of the board Swedish FinTech Association.

Camilla Giesecke, chief financial officer — Klarna

Photo Cred: Finansliv.
  • Klarna is Sweden’s most highly-valued private fintech. It offers a ‘buy now pay later’ service on online spending and is now across several markets, including the US.
  • Giesecke began her early career as an analyst at JP Morgan before joining a venture capital firm. She eventually joined Klarna in 2017 and rose to the role of chief financial officer within eight months.

France

Just 9% of France’s fintechs have female founders; less than half the UK’s 25%. But the French government is making an intervention to at least boost female representation at the board level, introducing a mandatory 40% quota for startups with over 500 employees or with more than €50m in sales.

Elise Moutarlier, cofounder and vice president of operations — Lovys

  • Lovys is a consumer-facing insurtech, offering a single monthly subscription that provides all-in-one insurance coverage. It has received backing from prominent investors like Plug and Play.
  • Moutarlier was part of Lovys’ founding team in 2017. As vice president of operations, she oversees Lovys’ marketing and communication strategy, partnerships and product development.

Céline Lazorthes, cofounder and chairman — Leetchi

  • Leetchi.com is France’s version of GoFundMe, helping people raise money for gifts, weddings or charity events. It has attained 12m users, collecting funds from 150 countries.
  • Lazorthes founded the company in 2008 and was its chief executive until it exited in September 2015 for €50m. The buyer also scooped up her other fintech company, MANGOPAY, for an undisclosed amount.

Elizabeth Coleon, chief marketing officer — Qonto

  • Qonto is France’s neobank for small businesses (like the UK’s Tide). It is now one of France’s most established fintechs, having launched in 2016, and has expanded into several other European countries.
  • Coleon joined Qonto’s c-suite less than a year ago from PayPal. She now leads Qonto’s growth team, which overseas brand and communications, acquisitions, sales and international expansion.

Spain

Spain tops the European leaderboard for the percentage of fintech executives that are women. Although Spain is not yet a major player in the fintech space, it is rapidly picking up speed, with digital banking apps like BNext attracting serious investor interest last year with its international ambitions.

Lupina Iturriaga, cofounder and co-chief executive — Fintonic

  • Fintonic is a digital financial marketplace for loans and insurance and is now among Spain’s most lucrative fintechs. It also offers a dashboard where customers can collect their financial information, their outgoings, renewals, overdrafts and fees.
  • In her native Spain, Iturriaga is pitched as ‘the woman revolutionising financial services’. She cofounded Fintonic in 2012 after a short stint in retail sales.

Mar Bezanilla Sal, chief operating officer — Pagantis

  • Pagantis allows users to pay their online shopping in instalments (like Klarna) and dominates among retailers in the south of Europe. It was founded in 2011 and is now estimated to be worth up to €390m.
  • Bezanilla joined the company in its first year and rose to its c-suite in 2015. She’s now in charge of executing the company strategy and overseeing productivity. She previously worked as a banking business consultant.

Ekaterina Kazak, chief risk officer — ID Finance

  • Barcelona’s ID Finance was Spain’s second-fastest growing fintech in 2019, according to the Financial Times, posting 236% revenue growth year-on-year. The Barcelona-based company provides lending technology to financial institutions and accounting services to startups in seven markets, including Brazil, acquiring over 3m users. It also provides loans under the MoneyMan brand.
  • Kazak joined ID Finance as chief risk officer in 2013, having begun her career in Russia. She is now at the head of the company of over 380 staff.

Lithuania

Lithuania is Europe’s second-largest (regulated) fintech hub. The country ranks first for its ratio of women in tech in the EU, and fintech is no exception — the main bulk of fintech companies based in Lithuania see women make up 30% or more of their workforce. In addition, two of its eight most highly-valued fintechsare founded by women.

Viktorija Vanage, founder and chief executive/chairwoman — Profitus

  • Profitus is a crowdfunding platform (for startups and real estate ventures). It currently ranks among Lithuania’s top five fintechs, carrying out risk assessments on behalf of investors as well as handling the financing process.
  • Vanage founded Profitus in late 2017, where she continues as its chief executive and head of its board. Prior to that, she founded an investment-management fund, where she is now chairwoman.

* To create this shortlist, we prioritised female founders whose companies were worth over €20m. The next tier was female chief executives at fintechs worth over €50m, followed by other c-suite execs in the country’s most highly-valued fintechs. If you think we missed anyone, email isabel@sifted.eu!

Women to watch in fintech


Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 15, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://sifted.eu/articles/women-execs-europe-list-fintech/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



When your mother is a neurosurgeon: ‘It motivates me to push myself’ | Liat Kobza | Stanford Medicine

Featured
Odette Harris with daughters Alister and Reece Sharp

Author Liat Kobza

Being the daughter of a female neurosurgeon is inspiring — just ask Reece and Alister Sharp. These teenaged sisters co-wrote a children’s book about it with two other young women, Lucia and Maria Bederson.

I Want To Be A Neurosurgeon provides their take on life with their mothers. Odette Harris, MD, MPH, is director of brain injury care at Stanford Medicine and, in 2018, became one of the first black female professors of neurosurgery in the United States. Isabelle Germano, MD, MBA, is a professor of neurosurgery, neurology and oncology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York.

I caught up with Reece, 14, and Alister, 16, to find out more about the impetus for publishing the e-book and what they hope readers — especially young girls — will take away from it.

Where did the idea for the book come from?

Alister: When I was in fifth grade, my sister and I realized that having a mother who leaves at 4:30 a.m. to save lives wasn’t exactly typical. We wanted to share our experiences and how our mom inspired us. It was almost as if we had a personal superhero, and we wanted to write her ‘comic book.’ 

Reece: My mom knew of Dr. Germano and her family, and so she suggested that we all collaborate to make the idea a reality. When we first met Lucia and Maria, they had a ton of ideas for the illustrations. All of us brainstormed and worked together to come up with the book we have now. 

What’s it like to be the daughter of a female neurosurgeon?

Reece: While I was in elementary school, I used to wake up in the morning and she was at work, and when I was really young and went to bed at 6:30 or 7 p.m., she was not home when I fell asleep.

Once a week, we had a speaker come and talk about what they do for a living. After my mom’s talk, all of the kids in my grade came up to me and asked questions about her. She also used to give presentations about how to protect yourself while riding a bike or how the brain works. I noticed how all the kids were engrossed in the words she was saying. I just remember thinking to myself, “Wow! That’s my mom!”

Alister: Her job keeps her very busy, but it makes the time we spend together very special. I’m fortunate to have a mom who loves her family a lot, because I know that even with her sometimes hectic schedule, she will be at every single performance or event I am a part of. I’ve also been lucky enough to see one or two surgeries.

Cover of book by Odette Harris's daughters
Reece and Alister Sharp are co-authors of a children’s book about life as daughters of a female neurosurgeon.

How does your mom’s profession inform your own academic and/or future career decisions?

Reece: Knowing all she did to get where she is now is very inspiring. It is almost scary knowing what I can accomplish in my career and life. It can be stressful and daunting at times. But mostly it makes me work harder. It motivates me to push myself.

Alister: Being a student who loves STEM (science, technology, engineering and math), I love the idea of a medical career — and following my mother’s footsteps to become a neurosurgeon isn’t off the table! What is most important to me is ensuring that my future profession makes a lasting impact in the lives of others, and helps to make the world a better place.

How do you think career opportunities differ for boys and girls?

Reece: I’m lucky to be able to go to an excellent all-girls school. At my school, we are given the opportunity to branch out and to experience different things that may help us in our careers; and we are taught to strive for what we want to achieve and to put ourselves out there.

Alister: My life is full of amazing female role models: my mother, my teachers and many other family members. Regardless of gender, I think that all of my friends, in school and outside of school, believe that they can pursue any career they want; and I am extremely thankful to live in an area that encourages an open and enthusiastic mindset.

What do you hope others will take away from reading the book?

Reece: Even if you’re not the child of a doctor and you can’t necessarily relate to the things mentioned, I think it’s really nice to read about other people’s experiences. Mostly, I just really hope people will enjoy the book. I also really want readers to know that it’s not just the content that’s important, it’s also the fact that we made the book a reality.

Alister: I hope that whoever reads our book will realize that anyone can make an impact on the world. It’s important to believe in your ability to do anything you put your mind to and to know that there are people in your life that you can always look up to. Neurosurgery is a very male-dominated field, and a book featuring two female neurosurgeons can hopefully empower young girls who might not yet believe that anything is possible.

Photo courtesy of Reece Sharp



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 15, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2020/06/12/when-your-mother-is-a-neurosurgeon-it-motivates-me-to-push-myself/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



20 Women Doing Fascinating Work in AI, Machine Learning and Data Science | Elaine Burke | Silicon Republic

Featured
20 women doing fascinating work in AI, machine learning and data science

PEOPLE | Image: © manuta/Stock.adobe.com

by Elaine Burke

Gender balance in AI conference line-ups has been noticeably poor. But women in AI exist and their work is multifaceted and extraordinary.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the hot ticket in tech at the moment. Unfortunately, too many events and conferences delving into the subject, and its related disciplines of machine learning (ML) and data science, feature few women – if at all – among their speakers.

To prove it doesn’t have to be like this, and as a follow-on from International Women’s Day, we at Silicon Republic have found 20 terrific women in AI, ML and data science who we think should be turning up in speaker line-ups across the country (and around the world).

Alessandra Sala

Alessandra Sala is head of analytics research at Nokia Bell Labs and technology advisory board member at CeADAR, Ireland’s Centre for Applied AI. She’s also the chief ambassador of Women in AI Ireland.

Women in AI is a non-profit working towards gender-inclusive AI for the benefit of global society. The group’s most recent Dublin meet-up took place at Trinity Business School and posed challenging questions around ethically driven AI design.Alessandra Sala@Ale_xsandra

1st Nokia Bell Labs AI Conference … creative time on the go 😊 @BellLabs

View image on Twitter

An active, visible and well-connected member of Ireland’s AI community, Sala’s research at Nokia Bell Labs focuses on distributed algorithms and complexity analysis with an emphasis on graph algorithms and privacy issues in large-scale networks.

Gillian Armstrong

Gillian Armstrong is a proven dab hand at tech events, having co-organised AI Con in Belfast in late 2019 as well as ServerlessDays Belfast at the beginning of this year.Gillian Armstrong@virtualgill

All set for #BFSServerless today, unicorn t-shirt and all! Even roped @MrVirtualGill into volunteering!#ServerlessDays

View image on Twitter

A solutions architect with Liberty IT where she is helping to bring machine learning and serverless systems to the world of enterprise, Armstrong was recently named a global AWS Machine Learning Hero.

She is most excited by applied AI and exploring how software engineers and data scientists can work closer together with the right tools. She’s also passionate about ethical AI and human-centred design, and eagerly shares what she learns with others online and off.

Sarah Jarvis

Head of data science at ProwlerSarah Jarvis was named among Re-Work’s 30 influential women advancing AI last year. She spoke last summer at CogX, the festival of AI and emerging technology, about building “a principled decision-based AI system” at the Cambridge-based company.

Prowler is building a platform that allows for complex decision-making in environments such as smart cities, logistics businesses and interconnected financial systems. Jarvis believes the future of tech-enabled decision-making will have to be instantaneous but also scalable and transmittable. She also believes there needs to be trust and, for that to happen, those who build AI need to be able to explain the how and why behind their tech’s decisions.

Jennifer Cruise

Head of data science at the Aon Centre for Innovation and Analytics in Dublin, Jennifer Cruise believes she’s in the “most exciting” industry for delving into data, and it’s true that insurance has deep roots in the history of analytics.

Jennifer Cruise, head of data science at ACIA. Image: Luke Maxwell/Siliconrepublic.com

Cruise has a solid academic background in maths, including a master’s degree in the subject, but she believes this kind of work requires a fusion of creative thinking with logic, data science and machine learning.

She has previously spoken at events on the challenges that businesses face relating to data, including how to deal with the abundance of information that is now available and, of course, the key issues of skills and resources.

Abeba Birhane

Abeba Birhane is a cognitive science PhD candidate at University College Dublin (UCD) and Lero, the Irish software research centre. Her interdisciplinary research intersects embodied cognitive science, dialogism, complexity science, critical data studies and philosophy of technology.

A thoughtful contributor on topics of AI, ethics and data science, Birhane explores the dynamic and reciprocal relationships between people – both as individuals and as a society – and the ubiquitous digital technology we encounter daily as well as newer, emerging technologies.

Image: Abeba Birhane

Birhane teaches subjects such as critical thinking and ethics and, last year, she was on stage at Code Mesh LDN and other events, urging audiences to embrace uncertainty.

Niamh Donnelly

Niamh Donnelly was awarded a master’s in computer science from UCD followed by an AI Award for a student project in 2018. She then joined Akara Robotics just as the company was spinning out from a robotics research team at Trinity College Dublin.

At Akara, Donnelly leads the development of the AI behind Stevie, a social robot and recent Time magazine cover star. She’s working to improve Stevie’s ability to communicate and interact with people autonomously in social settings and she brings this research to the field, observing Stevie in nursing homes surrounded by people and even calling games of bingo.

Rozenn Dahyot

Prof Rozenn Dahyot is a Trinity statistics professor whose research dives into deep learning and computer vision. She’s a principal investigator with the AIMapIT projectat the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) funded Adapt research centre, leading research on data analysis and visualisation.

AIMapIT’s AI system can support the discovery, detection and GPS mapping of stationary objects such as traffic lights, antennas, road signs or even individual trees. This technology could be used by utility companies to conduct a fully automated inventory of their assets, or it could aid autonomous vehicles in navigating ever-changing cityscapes.

Dahyot is also president of the Irish Pattern Recognition and Classification Society, which runs the Irish Machine Vision & Image Processing Conference, and is leading the organisation of the 29th European Signal Processing Conference in Dublin next year.

Keelin Murphy

Dr Keelin Murphy previously led the Delphi project to develop a smart brain monitoring system at Infant, the Irish Centre for Maternal and Child Health.

Delphi set out to use AI to help detect the severity of brain damage in infants as soon as possible, enabling early intervention and appropriate tailored therapies. As a research fellow on the project, Murphy could apply her expertise from her PhD thesis on automated medical image analysis.Two women in a hospital setting watch as an infant's head, connected to a number of sensors, is lifted by a healthcare practitioner.

From left: Infant director and professor of neonatal physiology at UCC, Geraldine Boylan, with Delphi project research fellow Dr Keelin Murphy. Image: Clare Keogh

She now works as a postdoctoral researcher for Radboud University Medical Centre, bringing her knowledge on applying machine and deep learning to the analysis of medical images to focus on chest X-rays.

Alison O’Shea

PhD student Alison O’Shea was instrumental in Infant winning Best Application of AI in an Academic Research Body at both the 2018 and 2019 AI Awards. Primarily trained as an electrical engineer, she develops deep-learning algorithms for physiological signal processing, and her project at the Cork research centre focuses on the detection of seizure events in neonatal EEG signals.

Alison O’Shea. Image: UCC

While completing her PhD in University College Cork (UCC), O’Shea works as a machine learning engineer at Qualcomm and, in 2018, she was recognised by Google as one of 20 Women Techmaker Scholars in the EMEA region. A publication arising from her PhD research was named as best publication of 2019 in the UCC School of Engineering.

Susan Leavy

Multi-disciplinarian Dr Susan Leavy holds an MPhil in gender and women’s studies, an MSc in AI, and a BA in philosophy and English literature. She also earned a PhD in computer science for her work detecting gender bias in political media coverage using ML and natural language processing (NLP). She then worked internationally in the investment banking sector, managing the design and development of large-scale trading platforms.UCD Equality Diversity & Inclusion@UCD_EDI

Dr Susan Leavy it’s important to design research and technology with users in mind. This should incorporate diversity and inclusion. Concepts of fairness have to be built into algorithms. #IWD2020 #equality

View image on Twitter

Now assistant professor at the School of Information and Communication in UCD, her research interests concern AI and digital policy, developing interdisciplinary frameworks for the governance and regulation of machine learning algorithms. Her postdoctoral research with Insight, the SFI-funded research centre for data analytics, and the UCD School of English, Drama and Film explored the use of AI and text mining for cultural analytics.

Nicole Baker

With more than two decades’ experience in academia, pharma, regulation and clinical research, Nicole Baker recently turned her focus to developing AI solutions for clinical safety. She participated in Enterprise Ireland’s 2019 New Frontiers Entrepreneur Development Programme and from this came Biologit, an early-stage technology start-up.

Nicole Baker. Image: Trinity College Dublin

Biologit’s aim is to help keep patients safe by simplifying the detection of adverse events from drug development to post-market, and to provide those developing and dispensing medicines with accurate information about safety, efficacy and the quality of medicinal products. Its first product is a cloud-based tool using NLP to monitor adverse events in medical literature faster and with greater accuracy.

Georgiana Ifrim

Dr Georgiana Ifrim is actively shaping the next generation of machine learning talent coming out of Ireland as co-lead of ML Labs, the SFI centre for research training in machine learning, which has been designed to address the urgent industry demand for ML skills.Brian Mac Namee@BrianMacNamee

Had fun talking about @ml_labs_irl with @heerme at @UCDGS event yesterday. Still time to apply for our next cohort starting in September 2020. @scienceirel @UCDCompSci #believeinscience #PhD #MachineLearning https://ml-labs.ucd.ie/index.php/apply/ …

View image on Twitter

Ifrim is also an assistant professor at UCD and researcher at SFI’s Insight and VistaMilk research centres. Her research focuses on developing scalable predictive models for ML and data mining applications, and she has developed new methods for sequence learning, time series classification, text mining and real-time prediction for news and social streams.

Claire Gormley

Dr Claire Gormley is also co-director of a new SFI centre for research training, this one focusing on the foundations of data science. Like her UCD colleague Ifrim, she is a funded investigator at the Insight and VistaMilk research centres. Statistical methods developed through her research have been applied in a wide range of fields, from social science and genetics to metabolomics and orthopaedics.A woman wearing a green top and spectacles smiles while standing in front of a well-stocked bookcase.

Claire Gormley. Image: UCD

Much of this work is computationally intensive and involves working with big data sets, and one of the biggest challenges Gormley identifies is separating the good from the bad when it comes to a world of data. “Lots of good data is the holy grail, but lots of bad data is very dangerous,” she says.

Claudia Orellana-Rodriguez

Salvadoran Claudia Orellana-Rodriguez is the lead research engineer at RecSys Labs, a project at the Insight centre seeking to build an online recommendations engine that is explainable, transparent and, most importantly, preserves user privacy.

She is also co-founder and CEO of Libre AI, a company leveraging AI and ML for clients in the commercial, public and social sectors; and co-organiser of the Dublin chapter of Women in Machine Learning and Data Science (WiMLDS).Claudia Orellana-Rodriguez@ClaOr9

Orellana-Rodriguez is committed to investigating AI as both a tool and medium for creativity and she shows her appreciation for the creative side of AI as co-founder of Cueva, an online gallery dedicated to AI art.

Shana Chu

Shana Chu is CEO and founder of Styl.Wrap, an Enterprise Ireland-backed start-up with a data-driven solution for one of online retail’s most wasteful challenges.STYL.wrap@stylwrap

We were at the @Entirl start up showcase yesterday. #startups #globalambition #fashiontech #retailtechhttps://www.linkedin.com/posts/shana-chu-34551517_globalambition-enterpriseireland-fashiontech-activity-6638423387184091138-dVFl …

View image on Twitter

According to Chu, 41pc of online shoppers buy multiple sizes of garments in order to check the fit at home. With her own experience as an online shopper and a garment technologist, Chu devised a solution that uses machine learning and an AI algorithm to analyse shoppers’ buying history and fabric specifications in order to better predict the fit. The result is a sizing recommendations engine that can reduce the cost and carbon footprint of shipping multiple sizes to try, and tackle the issue of overproduction in the fashion industry.

Sita Karki

Dr Sita Karki works as an Earth observation computational scientist at both the Irish Centre for High End Computing (ICHEC) and NUI Galway. She uses satellite images to study the past and present condition of the environment, writing programmes to process these big data sets.

Karki is interested in studying natural hazards using remote sensing techniques and has developed early warning systems for both rainfall-induced landslides and harmful algal blooms.

Currently, she is working on two projects using data from the Copernicus satellite and remote sensing of water. The Macro-MAN project is a follow-on from the Sea-MAT project studying macroalgal blooms in transitional and coastal Irish waters, while Infer is a three-year project developing algorithms to support the monitoring of water quality of Irish surface waters.

Medb Corcoran

Medb Corcoran drives the artificial intelligence R&D work of Accenture Labs in Ireland, finding ways to address critical business problems by applying leading-edge AI techniques, including ML, NLP, knowledge representation and reasoning. Prior to this role, she worked at Accenture’s Dublin RD&I centre, The Dock, overseeing teams prototyping and piloting advanced analytics and AI projects across various industries and sectors.A woman in a pink a blazer and colourful top smiles on a cushioned bench below a striking and colourful abstract painting.

Medb Corcoran. Image: Ruth Medjber/ruthlessimagery.com

Corcoran’s own background is in mathematics, finance, data science and AI, and she now has a hand in guiding third-level education in data science. She was invited to be part of an industry working group designing the first MSc in artificial intelligence in Ireland.

Patricia Scanlon

Soapbox Labs was founded in 2013 by Dr Patricia Scanlon, who was inspired to improve speech recognition for children from observing her young daughter interact with voice-led technology.

Turning entrepreneur after a 20-year career with IBM and Bell Labs, Scanlon put her research and expertise on speech recognition to work to develop an AI-driven, child-specific solution. By 2018, she was recognised by Forbes as one of the world’s top women in tech.

Soapbox Labs uses deep neural net-based speech-recognition technology to assess children’s speech in real-world noise environments. It’s built to integrate easily into third-party apps and web services, enabling a huge range of applications, from childhood literacy and language learning through to voice control in gaming.

Suzanne Little

Dr Suzanne Little is an associate professor at Dublin City University’s School of Computing and a researcher in multimedia semantics and video analysis at the Insight base there.

She teaches data management and visualisation all the while continuing her research on a number of industry, national and European projects. One such project is the Smart Stadium set-up at Croke Park, in partnership with Intel and Microsoft.

Little sees the smart instrumented stadium as “a microcosm of a smart city” and, with Croke Park, her research team identified scenarios they could monitor through sensoring and technology, and are now looking at how AI can be used to act on this data.

Ivana Dusparic

Dr Ivana Dusparic is an assistant professor in future cities and the internet of things at Trinity College Dublin and a funded investigator at Connect, the SFI research centre for future networks and communications.

Her research explores the use of AI for the autonomous optimisation of large-scale urban infrastructures, especially intelligent transport systems. For example, she has studied how to use machine learning on linked systems such as traffic lights to help keep transport and pedestrians flowing efficiently. Ivana Dusparic@ivanadusparic

Dusparic understands that machine learning requires more than just software and that insights from psychology, education and ethics have an important role to play too.

 By Elaine Burke 

Elaine Burke is editor of Siliconrepublic.com having served a few years as managing editor up to 2019. She joined in 2011 as a journalist covering gadgets, new media and tech jobs news. She comes from a background in publishing and is known for being particularly pernickety when it comes to spelling and grammar – earning her the nickname, Critical Red Pen.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 14, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.siliconrepublic.com/people/women-in-ai-machine-learning-data-science?_lrsc=cb9166ab-6f8b-4339-ad35-20247bcd032f

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



21 Finalists Named For The 2020 Cartier Women’s Initiative Awards | Anthony DeMarco | Forbes

Featured

Anthony DeMarco

Senior Contributor

Watches & Jewelry

The 2020 Cartier Women’s Initiative program has named 21 female entrepreneurial finalists, including three women from North America, who will compete to become one of seven laureates. More than $1.1 million in prize money will be distributed among these women business owners.

A reception prior to the announcement of the 2019 Cartier Women's Initiative laureates
A reception prior to the announcement of the 2019 Cartier Women’s Initiative laureates in San … [+] ANTHONY DEMARCO

The annual international business competition was created to identify, support and encourage projects by women entrepreneurs. It was founded in 2006 by Cartier in partnership with the INSEAD Business School. It is open to women-run and women-owned businesses from any country and sector that aim to have a strong and sustainable social or environmental impact. Since its inception, the program has supported 240 promising female entrepreneurs from 56 countries and awarded more than $3 million to support these businesses.

A total of 21 finalists representing seven global regions were selected among 1,200 applications from 162 countries. It is the first time that countries such as Australia, Benin, Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden are represented in the program.

The seven winners, known as laureates, from each region will take home $100,000 in prize money; the second and third runner-ups will each receive $30,000. Finally, the seven laureates and 14 finalists will all benefit from financial advisory services, one-on-one strategy coaching, media visibility and international networking opportunities, as well as a place on an INSEAD executive education program. The three finalists from North America and their businesses are:

Stephanie Benedetto, founder of Queen of Raw, an online marketplace for unused textiles
Stephanie Benedetto, founder of Queen of Raw, an online marketplace for unused textiles, keeping … [+] CARTIER WOMEN’S INITIATIVE 

* Stephanie Benedetto, founder of Queen of Raw, N.Y. The company buys and sells unused textiles, via the Queen of Raw online marketplace, keeping them out of landfills and making the world a less wasteful place.

Kelly Nguyen of IDLogiq, Santa Clara, Calif.
Kelly Nguyen of IDLogiq, Santa Clara, Calif., empowers patients to proactively verify, authenticate … [+] CARTIER WOMEN’S INITIATIVE 

* Kelly Nguyen of IDLogiq, Santa Clara, Calif. This firm empowers patients to proactively verify, authenticate and manage medications with a single mobile scan using strong cryptographic identity authentication, real-time tracking and intelligent medication management.

Sarah of Tuneberg of Geospiza, Denver, Col.
Sarah of Tuneberg of Geospiza, Denver, Col., which analyzes and visualizes risk for climate-exposed … [+] ANTHONY DEMARCO

* Sarah of Tuneberg, Geospiza, Denver, Col. This company analyzes and visualizes risk for climate-exposed organizations, enabling decision-making during times of uncertainty.

The seven laureates will be announced in early June 2020.

“Creating opportunities for women and empowering them is not only what we believe is right, it also tells who we are: a Maison both anchored in reality and open to the world, thus perfectly aware of our responsibility,” said Cyrille Vigneron, president and CEO of Cartier International. “It’s a responsibility all the more important given these uncertain times. At Cartier, we believe it is crucial to support young businesses and start-ups through to a more stable period. And this is what we intend to keep doing, fully aware that these women are making a concrete and durable impact, therefore paving the way for a better future.”

Follow Anthony DeMarco on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out his website

Anthony DeMarco

In a previous life He was an award-winning daily newspaper reporter who moved to business and trade magazines and who now specializes in high jewelry and watches for publications around the world. His first magazine job was with a design and architecture trade publication where he received a first-hand education and appreciation of how good, innovative design can make the world a better place. It’s something he takes with him while traveling the world and writing about the finer things in life. In addition to this blog, you can find him at his “Jewelry News Network” blog and facebook page, on Instagram @jewelrynewsnetwork and on Twitter @jewelrynewsnet.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 14, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/anthonydemarco/2020/04/03/21-finalists-named-for-the-2020-cartier-womens-initiative-awards/#66359ab4164f

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): WomenWhoLead, #WomenWhoCode, #WomenSupportingWomen, #WomensAgenda, #WomenPower, #WomenLeadTheWay, #WomenInTechnology, #WomenInTech, #WomenInSTEM, #WomenInScience, #WomenInSales, #WomenInResearch, #WomenInPower, #WomenInMedicine, #WomenInMath, #WomenInLeadership, #WomenInEngineering, #WomenInEconomics, #WomenInDigital, #WomenInConstruction, #WomenInBusiness, #WomenInArtificialIntelligence, #WomenInAI, #WomenInAG, #WomenHelpingWomen, #WomenEmpowerment, #WhoRunTheWorld, #OptionB, #LeanInTogether, #LeanIn, #Inclusion, #GenderEquality, #Equity, #Economists, #Diversity, #Datascience, #Data

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



The Woman Who Discovered The First Coronavirus | Steven Brocklehurst | BBC Scotland News

Featured

By Steven Brocklehurst BBC Scotland News

June Almeida with her electron microscope at the Ontario Cancer Institute in Toronto in 1963
Image captionJune Almeida with her electron microscope at the Ontario Cancer Institute in Toronto in 1963

The woman who discovered the first human coronavirus was the daughter of a Scottish bus driver, who left school at 16.

June Almeida went on to become a pioneer of virus imaging, whose work has come roaring back into focus during the present pandemic.

Covid-19 is a new illness but it is caused by a coronavirus of the type first identified by Dr Almeida in 1964 at her laboratory in St Thomas’s Hospital in London.

The virologist was born June Hart in 1930 and grew up in a tenement near Alexandra Park in the north east of Glasgow.

She left school with little formal education but got a job as a laboratory technician in histopathology at Glasgow Royal Infirmary.

Later she moved to London to further her career and in 1954 married Enriques Almeida, a Venezuelan artist. 

Common cold research

The couple and their young daughter moved to Toronto in Canada and, according to medical writer George Winter, it was at the Ontario Cancer Institute that Dr Almeida developed her outstanding skills with an electron microscope.

She pioneered a method which better visualised viruses by using antibodies to aggregate them. 

Mr Winter told Drivetime on BBC Radio Scotland her talents were recognised in the UK and she was lured back in 1964 to work at St Thomas’s Hospital Medical School in London, the same hospital that treated Prime Minister Boris Johnson when he was suffering from the Covid-19 virus.

On her return, she began to collaborate with Dr David Tyrrell, who was running research at the common cold unit in Salisbury in Wiltshire.

Mr Winter says Dr Tyrrell had been studying nasal washings from volunteers and his team had found that they were able to grow quite a few common cold-associated viruses but not all of them.

One sample in particular, which became known as B814, was from the nasal washings of a pupil at a boarding school in Surrey in 1960.

They found that they were able to transmit common cold symptoms to volunteers but they were unable to grow it in routine cell culture. 

However, volunteer studies demonstrated its growth in organ cultures and Dr Tyrrell wondered if it could be seen by an electron microscope.

They sent samples to June Almeida who saw the virus particles in the specimens, which she described as like influenza viruses but not exactly the same.

She identified what became known as the first human coronavirus.

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that have a halo or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under a microscope
Image captionCoronaviruses are a group of viruses that have a halo or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under a microscope

Mr Winter says that Dr Almeida had actually seen particles like this before while investigating mouse hepatitis and infectious bronchitis of chickens.

However, he says her paper to a peer-reviewed journal was rejected “because the referees said the images she produced were just bad pictures of influenza virus particles”.

The new discovery from strain B814 was written up in the British Medical Journal in 1965 and the first photographs of what she had seen were published in the Journal of General Virology two years later.

According to Mr Winter, it was Dr Tyrrell and Dr Almeida, along with Prof Tony Waterson, the man in charge at St Thomas’s, who named it coronavirus because of the crown or halo surrounding it on the viral image.

Dr Almeida later worked at the Postgraduate Medical School in London, where she was awarded a doctorate. 

She finished her career at the Wellcome Institute, where she was named on several patents in the field of imaging viruses.

After leaving Wellcome, Dr Almeida become a yoga teacher but went back into virology in an advisory role in the late 1980s when she helped take novel pictures of the HIV virus.

June Almeida died in 2007, at the age of 77.

Now 13 years after her death she is finally getting recognition she deserves as a pioneer whose work speeded up understanding of the virus that is currently spreading throughout the world.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 14, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-52278716

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



3 Ways to Advance Gender Equity as We Return to the Office | David G. Smith | W. Brad Johnson | Harvard Business Review

Featured
Illustration by Eleni Kalorkoti 

As we plan the return to the workplace and think about what work might look like after the shutdown, leaders must remember gender equality and representation. The lockdown offers a unique opportunity to supercharge progress on gender equity by deliberately reworking policies and practices to usher in a new chapter in the history of work — one that is designed for men and women, particularly as family commitments come into play.

Before the pandemic, women did more unpaid work at home, were more likely to take time off from work to care for sick children, and to forego paid work to provide caregiving. Although many companies have implemented parental leave and flexible work arrangements to help, these accommodations generally are perceived to be for women alone. These perceptions fuel the motherhood penalty, reinforcing assumptions that women aren’t as committed to paid work and are distracted by caregiving — biases that limit women’s careers. These perceptions also stigmatize these programs for men, so fewer men fully use them.

But disruptions in work and household routines for a significant period of time, such as during the current crisis, can be instrumental in changing traditionally held gender norms. For example, research on parents who both take parental leave — a major long-term disruption to their typical work routines — found that these parents are more likely to maintain a more balanced and egalitarian approach to caregiving and household responsibilities over the long-term.

Consider this: Even when both partners are forced to work full-time from home, women still do more household chores, childcare, and homework oversight. And that was before the recent pandemic hit. Recent research suggests the additional burden of working from home while juggling child care, virtual schooling, and other household responsibilities is compounding stress in women’s personal and professional lives. New evidence from Lean In reveals that one in four women say they are experiencing severe anxiety. More than half of all women are struggling with sleep issues. Far more women than men with full-time jobs and families say they have more to do than they can possibly handle.

Although most men may not be contributing their equal share to household chores, childcare, and home-schooling, they now have a first-hand appreciation of the challenges of balancing unpaid work with paid work. In a recent study on working parents, twice as many fathers as mothers described caregiving during the lockdown as extremely difficult and 38% very strongly agreed that they should be doing more of the unpaid work at home.

Men are also gaining a new appreciation for the importance of connection, vulnerability, and empathy in their personal and professional relationships. Teleworking in the current crisis often starts with check-ins that create opportunities for providing emotional support, demonstrating authenticity, and sharing experiences with coworkers that build teamwork, trust, and work identity. Working fathers are also enjoying building relationships with their children and learning what it means to be an equal partner in terms of supporting their partner’s career.

Finally, available and affordable childcare is critical for families and business. Nearly 80% of dual-career working parents used some form of paid childcare before the crisis, yet, during the lockdown, two-thirds of working mothers report being the sole caregiver for children.

Because men vastly outnumber women in senior leadership roles in most organizations, this is a golden opportunity for men-as-allies to purposefully leverage their newfound experience balancing teleworking and domestic partnership to truly move the needle on full gender equity. As organizational change agents, male leaders must demonstrate vision, courage, and genuine collaboration with women to rework policies, practices, and systems in order to create a new normal in our post-pandemic workplace, as well as in society more broadly.

Here are some recommendations to make this a reality:

Advocate for expanded and creative flexible work arrangements.

During this shutdown, more leaders are witnessing the benefits of more employees working remotely. A recent survey of chief information officers found that 71% agreed that a new appreciation for remote work arrangements will be a significant factor in their future plans for office space and technology staffing to support the new demand. Another study found that 27% of dads would like more flexible work arrangements, and most working fathers agree that teleworking will provide women — especially mothers — more professional opportunities.

As you return to work, make flexible work arrangements the new normal. Change the modal expectation from the traditional five-day-at-work model to one or two days a week in the company office and the remaining days at home. Push back on traditional criteria for “face time” when evaluating employee performance. Genuine flexibility means encouraging employees to work where they are most productive. Flex-time and flex-locations are more likely to accommodate work and family schedules. And remember, when men advocate for these policies — and use them — they’re no longer perceived as “women’s” programs.

Keep working parents in mind. 

Advocate for paid sick leave for all employees — and use it yourself! In our research, we found that when men modeled this behavior, it encouraged other men and women to feel comfortable using their maximum paid leave. Men as equal partners also have to do their fair share of taking children to the doctor or staying home with kids when they’re sick.

Advocate, too, for available and affordable childcare. This could involve off-site or co-op arrangements, benefits such as childcare vouchers, and even on-site care facilities (once they’re deemed safe to resume). Genuine gender balance and gender equity at work may be unattainable until top-rate childcare is accessible for everyone. Although organizations may be restricted or financially constrained right now and unable to provide as much childcare support as they’d like, partnerships in the community or with other companies may be smart options in the near-term. The federal government does this to some degree for its employees — albeit with a need for more.

Show off your family life. 

When leaving work for children or family responsibilities, leave loudly. Don’t try to hide it. Too often men try to sneak out the back door or silently sign offline hoping no one will notice their absence. Normalize leaving work to meet your family obligations so that no one — including women you work with — is penalized or perceived in a negative light when they do the same. Encourage other men to openly prioritize their own commitments to partners and children. You can also do this when working remotely by announcing on your work collaboration and communication platform that you’re logging off to take your child to the doctor or to attend a parent-teacher Zoom call.

And talk to your colleagues about your family. During the pandemic we’ve all learned that it’s not only OK to talk about your family and domestic challenges, it’s really powerful and meaningful to your team in building relationships and emotional connection. Continue these conversations when you return to work.

Crises are often catalysts for turning points in people’s individual lives, and also for societies. The current pandemic will be another turning point, one that provides an opportunity to rework work in a way that disrupts traditional narratives and beliefs into new norms and values that make “work” work for everyone.


David G. Smith, PhD, is a professor of sociology in the College of Leadership and Ethics at the United States Naval War College. He is the coauthor of Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor Women. His next book, coauthored with W. Brad Johnson, is Good Guys: How Men Can Be Better Allies for Women in the Workplace, forthcoming in 2020.  


W. Brad Johnson, PhD, is a professor of psychology in the Department of Leadership, Ethics, and Law at the United States Naval Academy and a faculty associate in the Graduate School at Johns Hopkins University. He is the coauthor of Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor WomenThe Elements of Mentoring, and other books on mentorship. His next book, coauthored with David G. Smith, is Good Guys: How Men Can Be Better Allies for Women in the Workplace, forthcoming in 2020.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 14, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://hbr.org/2020/06/3-ways-to-advance-gender-equity-as-we-return-to-the-office

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Leadership Lessons from the Pandemic | Smita Nair Jain

Featured
Writer Author Smita Jain Pen Name Smita Nair Jain

Smita Nair Jain

I once complained that my life was monotonous.

There was a time when the calm in my life was governed by the routine of waking up, checking workmails, working on the important ones with immediacy, organizing home staff to help deliver their work,the showering, dressing, driving to work, working, driving back, sorting the end of day duties on thehome turf, reading, un-winding the spring that got tightly wound up through the day and finallysuccumbing to precious sleep – and all this with a smattering of family time woven in.

But that was before the pandemic and the lockdowns. I now realise that it was the monotony thatbrought in that calm. And I wish my life returned to that monotony.

But as Socrates said, “The secret of change is to focus all of your energy not on fighting the old but onbuilding the new”.

Towards building this new, as we sit in the first phase of the ‘opening of the Lockdown’ in Hyderabad,(India), I search my soul, work and actions of the past three months and determine that the ‘New’ willperhaps require us to be more engaging, more trusting, more technology driven, more climate friendly,and more cohesive as a ‘one world’ united by our healthcare challenges and financial uncertainties anddivided only by geographical borders

My Leadership Lessons

1. Learning and Accepting that WFH is a reality

While most firms I worked for had ‘Working from Home’ as a documented element in their EmployeeHandbook of Policies, any request for WFH was considered with deep suspicion and almost alwaysgranted as a ‘favor’. I myself often grappled with these requests when these came up frequently fromthe same people – as I primarily did not have a mode of measuring their work output and productivitywhen they did WFH. And I found no pressing need to determine the mode as everyone was to ‘workfrom Office’ as a rule and WFH was a planned, pre-approved exception to that rule.

And even if I wanted to provide flexibility to my team, my onshore clients and stakeholders seldomsupported this due to a multitude of reasons ranging from ‘sensitive data access’, ‘PCI office space’ etc.

The pandemic changed all that. 100% of my team (a fairly large one at that) are fully functional fromtheir homes and meeting productivity targets and sometimes far-exceeding them too.

It took just a couple of hours for the management team and me to figure out work distribution andperformance monitoring and we were all set to migrate overnight from a 100% ‘work in office’ to a100% ‘work from Home’ workforce.

I am in no hurry to get them back to work as we are in no loss while we WFH and my Leaders and I haveunderstood and accepted that ‘Remote Working is not a privilege or special accommodation. It is just away of working.

My own work hours, quantity and quality of work output and engagement with my Direct Reports hasimproved significantly. As the physical distance between us has grown, we strive to be morecollaborative.

2. Attitude embellishes Aptitude

These are difficult times. Many firms may eventually carry out workforce rationalization exercises. Asdistances grow, we must always be present ourselves as and remain flexible, positive and ready to takeon more responsibilities. These will be the traits that Leaders remember while they make the difficultdecision.

How well you do what you do certainly matters. But how you play within the team and outside speaksvolumes about your resilience and personality, qualities that will elongate your employment.

3. Emotional and Organisational Resilience

This is the time for Compassionate Leadership – for – while our team works for us, they also want us toengage with them on what they are going through. Be curious and keen to learn the impact thepandemic is having on each member of the team. Draw them out – without being intrusive – inconversations – especially those – who are silent and introverted as they may not be forthcoming abouttheir personal circumstances.

Leaders must consistently take a hard, rational line of thought to protect the financial performance ofthe organization along with being compassionate towards the workforce

Invest in technology that has proved to be the glue in these times of remote working; re-design businessprocesses to spell ‘simplification’; digitize customer journeys to spell ‘ease’ to customers; and aceeptWFH as a boon to business (for real estate related costs), to employees (for increased work hours andProductivity) and to the world (for a reduced carbon foot print).

4. Egalitarianism at another Level

When I started out in my career there was a vast difference between operating in India and operating inthe West. Having been a part of the offshoring industry almost all my life, I have seen how global clientswere frustrated with India when numerous workdays, sometimes all in a row were severely impacted byevents such as the death of a local politician or a popular actor, by the monsoons, by social unrestfollowing the arrest of a local Leader etcetera. Two barriers to offshoring in the 90s and early 2000s wasterrorism and War – the actual one as well as the mere thought of it.

But all of that changed over the course of time. 9/11 and its aftermath showed that developedgeographies could also be pulled into the trap of terrorism and war. In 2009, when Mumbai roads andrails were flooded for 2 days and I could only have a skeletal strength at work, my UK client did notcomplain as he was stranded at home due to floods too. Today, civic unrests happen in multiplegeographies simultaneously. Clients and firms offshoring to far-away geographies have more first handexperience of these conditions that were once the trademark of only some far-away countries.

This pandemic takes egalitarianism to another level, debunking oft-proved theories around sicknessrising and thriving in poor economies, unhygienic conditions etcetra.

We are in the period of ‘emergency to the power of infinity’ today when it comes to climatic change andits impact on the world’s people and its economy and repeated calamities like this will be detrimental tobusiness and industry.

This is the time for the world’s industry and corporate leadership to exploit this egalitarianism to growas ‘OneForce’ and influence the global political leadership’s thoughts and actions on climate change.

It will be a shame if we waste an opportunity for a second chance.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 07, 2020)

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Barbara McClintock | Genius of Genetics | Beyond Curie

Featured
8/40

Barbara McClintock was an American scientist and cytogeneticist. She earned her PhD in botany from Cornell University in 1927 and became a leader in the development of maize cytogenetics. McClintock studied chromosomes and how they change during maize reproduction. She developed the technique for visualizing maize chromosomes, using microscopic analysis to demonstrate numerous fundamental genetic ideas. One of those ideas was the notion of jumping genes—genetic recombination by crossing-over during meiosis that allowed chromosomes to exchange information. She produced the first genetic map for maize, linking regions of the chromosome to physical traits. She demonstrated the role of the telomere and centromere, regions of the chromosome that are important in the conservation of genetic information. She was recognized among the best in the field, awarded prestigious fellowships, and elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1944.

During the 1940s and 1950s, McClintock discovered transposition and used it to demonstrate that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off. She developed theories to explain the suppression and expression of genetic information from one generation of maize plants to the next. Due to skepticism of her research and its implications, she stopped publishing her data in 1953.

It wasn’t until the 1960s and 1970s that McClintock’s research became well understood, as other scientists confirmed the mechanisms of genetic change and genetic regulation that she had demonstrated in her maize research twenty years before. As a result, she won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983 for the discovery of genetic transposition. She is the only woman to receive an unshared Nobel Prize in that category.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 05, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.beyondcurie.com/barbara-mcclintock

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Most Powerful Women | Phebe Novakovic | General Dynamics | Fortune

Featured

Born: 1957 (age 63 years), Pittsburgh, PA
Nationality: American
Net worth: $157 million (November 2019)
Spouse: David Morrison
Education: Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, Smith College
Title: Chairman and CEO
Affiliation: General Dynamics


Phebe Novakovic (Serbian Cyrillic: Фиби Новаковић) is an American businesswoman and former intelligence officer. She serves as the Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer of General Dynamics. As of 2018, she is listed as the world’s 25th most powerful woman in business by Forbes.


Novakovic is of Serbian descent. Phebe Novakovic graduated from Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1979 and received an M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1988.


She worked for the Central Intelligence Agency. From 1997 to 2001, she worked for the United States Department of Defense.


She joined General Dynamics in 2001. She became president and Chief Operation Officer in 2012. She has served as the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of General Dynamics since January 2013.


She has sat on the Board of Directors of Abbott Laboratories since 2010. As of 2018, she is listed as the 25th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes, rising from 56th in 2015 and 65th in 2014.

She is married. In 2012, she earned US$6,887,772. As CEO in 2014, she earned $18.99 million, a majority of which is in company equity.

Increased military spending and a loosening of policies related to selling arms to foreign governments helped boost U.S. defense contractors in 2018—and General Dynamics was no exception. Under Novakovic’s leadership, GD hit $36.2 billion in revenue last year, a 17% gain over 2017—thanks in part to the acquisition of information tech firm CSRA and an increase in its business servicing aging planes.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 05, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://fortune.com/most-powerful-women/2019/phebe-novakovic/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



21 New Founders to Watch | Kylie Adair | Future of Good

Featured

Author Kylie Adair

Future of Good is excited to present the 2020 list of new founders to watch. 

Now is a challenging time for new social impact organizations, non-profits, co-operatives, and social enterprise startups. Demand for many startups’ services is rising while fundraising is becoming more difficult and federal government support is largely falling short. 

But this period of time is also presenting an enormous opportunity to rise to the challenge of rebuilding our country. And these 21 new founders are poised to do just that. 

Each founder on this list is building a promising solution for a more resilient, caring, inclusive, sustainable society — solutions that are vital for communities to build back better post-pandemic. 

Featuring founders of social impact organizations less than three years old, this list includes those working on causes like food security, youth climate action, accessible in-home care, inclusive leadership training, housing affordability, and more. These founders are entrepreneurs, innovators, and leaders of today and tomorrow. Their work moves us forward, and is worthy of celebration.

Nominations for the list opened in March with only two requirements: nominee organizations must be under three years old and work in Canada. An internal team brought the submissions down to a shortlist of 35, then a selection committee made up of Future of Good’s advisory board and member community each submitted their top 21 picks, and the votes were tallied.

Future of Good’s selection committee for this year’s 21 New Founders To Watch:

  • Anna Laycock, former CEO, Finance Innovation Lab
  • Danielle Graham, Principal, Sandpiper Ventures
  • Hannah Rundle, Corporate Sustainability Analyst, Scotiabank
  • Ilse Treurnicht, former CEO, MaRS Discovery District
  • Joanna Buczkowska-McCumber, Executive Director, League of Innovators
  • Manu Sharma, Strategic Advisor, Centre for Social Enterprise Development
  • Rachel Berdan, Social Enterprise Program Manager, Pillar Nonprofit Network

New to Future of Good? Get started on your journey with a free account. You’ll have limited access to the stories on futureofgood.co and you’ll receive our monthly Impact Insider email with a round-up of monthly stories from Future of Good and across the social impact sector.

Aidan Scott (He/Him) CO-FOUNDER, SPEAKBOX Improving the accessibility of mental health support 

Aidan Scott is the co-founder and CEO of Speakbox, a digital platform that allows counsellors and clients to share notes, care plans, goals, and progress. After experiencing mental illness in his own life and seeing first-hand the barriers preventing millions from accessing care, Scott recognized that for mental healthcare to be effective, patients and care providers need to function as one harmonious team. 

Twitter
LinkedIn

Alexandra Daignault (She/Her) FOUNDER, SARJESA Starting necessary conversations about Indigenous rights

Alexandra Daignault describes herself as an “accidental social entrepreneur.” She founded Sarjesa — a tea company that uses its platform and products to raise awareness for missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls as well as gendered violence across other marginalised communities — during her undergraduate studies at Mount Royal University. 

Instagram
LinkedIn

Ana Gonzalez Guerrero (She/Her) and Dominique Souris (She/Her) CO-FOUNDERS, YOUTH CLIMATE LAB Empowering the next generation to take climate action 

Dominique Souris and Ana Gonzalez Guerrero are the co-founders of Youth Climate Lab (YCL). Driven by the need to create a more just and inclusive transition towards a sustainable future, Gonzalez Guerrero and Souris are providing young people across the country with the tools and resources they need to take climate action in their communities. 

Twitter
Twitter

Candies Kotchapaw (She/Her) FOUNDER, DEVELOPING YOUNG LEADERS OF TOMORROW, TODAY (DYLOTT) Empowering a generation of Black Canadian leaders

After experiencing systemic racism during graduate studies, Candies Kotchapaw founded Developing Young Leaders of Tomorrow, Today (DYLOTT), a Black youth-focused leadership incubation organization, geared towards changing the career trajectory of Black youth. Kotchapaw is working to empower leaders of colour, today and tomorrow. 

Twitter
Instagram
LinkedIn

Chenny Xia (She/Her) and Carol MacDonald (She/Her) CO-FOUNDERS, GOTCARE Improving the accessibility of in-home care

Chenny Xia and Carol MacDonald are on a mission to make in-home care more accessible. They co-founded GotCare, one of the largest networks of care workers in Canada, helping to reduce wait times for in-home care across the country. Xia brings a background in service and systems design, and MacDonald brings her experience as a healthcare worker to their innovative work on GotCare. 

Twitter
LinkedIn
LinkedIn

Cheyenne Sundance (She/Her) FOUNDER, SUNDANCE HARVEST Fighting for food justice and sovereignty

Cheyenne Sundance is a self-taught organic farmer who has worked in both rural and urban settings. She’s the founder and farmer of Sundance Harvest, an urban farm in Toronto, Ontario that focuses on food justice and eradicating systemic racism in the food system. She also works as a food justice educator with experience in community organizing and political resistance movements.

Instagram

Claire Elizabeth Williams (She/Her) CO-FOUNDER, NEW LEAF PROJECT Taking direct action on homelessness 

Claire Elizabeth Williams is the co-founder and executive director of the New Leaf Project, an organization that provides direct cash transfers to people experiencing homelessness. NLP is taking bold action to create a positive impact on people’s lives at precisely the time they need it most, and has provided valuable insight for other organizations working toward direct cash transfer-based solutions. 

LinkedIn

Dr. Alina Turner (She/Her) CO-FOUNDER, HELPSEEKER Connecting Canadians with the services they need

A researcher and entrepreneur, Dr. Alina Turner is the co-founder of social enterprise HelpSeeker, a digital platform that connects people across the country with nearby social services. HelpSeeker uses machine learning, data science, and social innovation to help people gain easier access to services that improve their lives.

Twitter
LinkedIn

Jennifer DeCoste (She/Her) FOUNDER, LIFE.SCHOOL.HOUSE Engaging in deep, grassroots community development 

Jennifer DeCoste is the founder of a network of barter-based folkschools in Nova Scotia called Life.School.House. This platform creates stronger neighborhoods and reduces social isolation by offering nourishing spaces where neighbours can learn, connect, and thrive. DeCoste and her team are now sharing their expertise across Canada, supporting others to create their own community-led folkschools. 

Instagram
LinkedIn

Katie Heggtveit (She/Her) FOUNDER, BOOTCAMPS FOR CHANGE Using physical activity to connect with people experiencing homelessness 

Katie Heggtveit founded the award-winning organization Bootcamps for Change, which facilitates custom in-shelter fitness, sports rehabilitation, and #SweatierForTheBetter employment programs for youth experiencing homelessness. Bootcamps for Change has an incredible success rate: 100 percent of its scholarship recipients have now exited the shelter system and live independently. 

Instagram
LinkedIn

Kim Aitken (She/Her) FOUNDER, AITKEN FRAME HOMES Addressing the housing affordability crisis 

Kim Aitken is the founder of Aitken Frame Homes, houses designed to be more affordable, stronger, and more energy efficient. Through her involvement with the Muskoka Women’s Advocacy Group, Aitken saw how the unaffordability of housing was affecting people’s lives, and decided to create a solution that would make buying a home more accessible. 

Instagram
LinkedIn

Lliam Hildebrand (He/Him) CO-FOUNDER, IRON & EARTH Building tools and resources for our transition to renewable energy

Lliam Hildebrand is the co-founder of Iron & Earth, an organization that helps oil and gas workers transition their skills toward the renewable energy industry. After working as a welder and steel fabricator for the oil and gas industry, Hildebrand had the opportunity to use his skills to build a wind farm, and soon after had the idea to help other oil and gas workers transition their skill sets, too. 

Twitter
Instagram
LinkedIn

Lourdes Juan (She/Her) FOUNDER, THE LEFTOVERS FOUNDATION Reducing food waste while improving access to food

An urban planner and entrepreneur, Lourdes Juan is the founder of the Leftovers Foundation, an organization ensuring that good quality food from restaurants, bakeries, grocers and distributors stays out of landfills by redirecting this food toward service agencies working with communities who need better access to food. 

Twitter
Instagram
LinkedIn

Nada El Masry (She/Her) CO-FOUNDER, RADIUS REFUGEE LIVELIHOOD LAB Supporting refugees and newcomers to Canada

Nada El Masry is a Libyan-born Palestinian who came to the unceded land of the Coast Salish peoples just over 10 years ago. Having worked with racialized migrants for several years, El Masry co-designed RADIUS Refugee Livelihood Lab, which aims to build social, economic, and political capital for racialized refugee and migrant communities.

LinkedIn

Natasha Freidus (She/Her) CO-FOUNDER, NEEDSLIST Facilitating aid for people displaced by climate crises 

With two decades of experience in human-centred design for social change, Natasha Freidus has seen first-hand the need for better responses to climate crises. She co-founded NeedsList, a tech company creating software that aggregates needs of people displaced by crises and offers for local help in real-time, to foster collaboration between stakeholders, reduce waste, and increase efficiency. 

Twitter
Instagram
LinkedIn

Naysan Saran (She/Her) CO-FOUNDER, CANN FORECAST Making water management systems more sustainable

Naysan Saran is taking action on Sustainable Development Goal 6 — clean water and sanitation. Her company, CANN Forecast uses artificial intelligence to help municipalities more efficiently and sustainably manage their water systems. With a background in both computer engineering and mathematics, Saran is passionate about using artificial intelligence to help solve environmental challenges.

LinkedIn

Rachel Kiddell-Monroe (She/Her) FOUNDER, SEECHANGE Radical, community-first approaches to health crises 

Rachel Kiddell-Monroe founded the SeeChange Initiative, an innovative platform with Inuit communities to address the tuberculosis epidemic and a Community First COVID-19 Roadmap to support isolated, at-risk communities in preparing for COVID-19 outbreaks. Kiddell-Monroe is a humanitarian worker, a lawyer and an activist, passionate about promoting humanity and solidarity for people and our planet.

Twitter
LinkedIn

Rusul Alrubail (She/Her) FOUNDER, THE PARKDALE CENTRE FOR INNOVATION Closing the innovation gap among people of colour

Rusul Alrubail is working to close gaps in accessibility to innovation, the tech industry and entrepreneurship, especially for underrepresented groups: women, newcomers and those from low-income backgrounds. She’s the founder of the Parkdale Centre for Innovation, a non-profit incubator and accelerator focusing on supporting founders of colour and who are newcomers to Canada. 

Twitter
Instagram
LinkedIn

Tessa Lochhead (She/Her) and Karen Nutarak (She/Her) CO-FOUNDERS, THE PIRURVIK PRESCHOOL Delivering culturally relevant early education in the North 

Tessa Lochhead and Karen Nutarak are the co-founders of the Pirurvik Preschool in Pond Inlet, Nunavut, which provides culturally relevant early education centered and based on the Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) principles. The Pirivik Preschool also serves as a training facility for early childhood educators across Nunavut and was the recipient of a $1 million Arctic Inspiration Prize. 

Facebook

Trevor Bell (He/Him) FOUNDER, SMARTICE Building solutions for climate change adaptation

Trevor Bell is the founder of SmartlCE, which empowers Indigenous communities to adapt to increasingly unpredictable ice conditions. SmartICE was recognized by the United Nations in 2017 for its novel climate solution and was the recipient of a Governor General’s Innovation Award in 2019. Trevor is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.

Twitter

Wendy Morrison (She/Her) FOUNDER, YZED PROJECTS Strengthening Yukon’s social impact ecosystem

Wendy Morrison is the founder of YZED Projects, a company whose core offering is REVyzed, a program to build organizational effectiveness and help Yukon-based non-profits thrive. REVyzed is working with community and technology experts to develop accessible tech solutions, tools, coaching and support.

LinkedIn

Kylie Adair is the Content Editor at Future of Good.


Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 04, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://futureofgood.co/21-new-founders-2020/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Most Powerful Women | Sheryl Sandberg | Facebook | Fortune

Featured
  • TITLE: COO
  • AFFILIATION: Facebook
  • AGE: 50

Sandberg’s job seems to center more and more on defending Facebook from its critics. In July, the Federal Trade Commission slapped the social network with a record $5 billion fine to settle claims that it mishandled users’ personal data; now some politicians are considering an antitrust probe. The negative attention hasn’t dented growth, at least so far: In 2018, revenue came in at $55.8 billion, up 37% year over year.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 04, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://fortune.com/most-powerful-women/2019/sheryl-sandberg/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Rita Levi-Montalcini | The Woman Who Discovered Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) | Beyond Curie

Featured
7/40

Rita Levi-Montalcini was an Italian Nobel Laureate honored for her work in neurobiology. She won the Nobel Prize in 1986 for the discovery of nerve growth factor. She was born in 1909 in Turin into a Sephardi Jewish family. Her father discouraged her aspirations of becoming a doctor because he feared it would disrupt her life as a wife and mother. She became a doctor anyway and began a career in neurology research.
Her academic career was cut short as a result of Mussolini’s 1938 ban barring Jews from academic and professional careers. So she set up a laboratory in her bedroom and studied the growth of nerve fibers in chicken embryos, which laid the groundwork for her later research. In 1946 she was granted a fellowship at Washington University in St. Louis. She replicated her previous work done in her makeshift bedroom lab and was offered a research position at the university which she held for 30 years. There, in 1952 she did her most important work, isolating the nerve growth factor from observations of certain cancerous tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve cells. She became the first Nobel Laureate ever to reach the age of 100.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 04, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.beyondcurie.com/rita-levimontalcini

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Ten things you can learn from women’s resilience that will help you stay strong in the time of COVID-19 | UN Women | Medium

Featured

The new coronavirus pandemic has changed everything. With more than a billion people in lockdown, it has upended life as we knew. We don’t know what a better future would look like and when it’ll come.

During these uncertain and difficult times, we turn to women leaders from around the world for inspiration. They have forged peace when ravaged by war; they have driven innovation despite all odds; and they persisted in the face of challenges and insisted on building a better future.

To help keep us all going, we’re sharing some of our favourite inspirational quotes about perseverance and resilience.

1. Keeping hope alive

We succeeded when no one thought we would. We were the conscience of the ones who had lost their consciences.

When the Liberian civil war started, Gbowee was just 17 years old. In the course of the conflict that raged violence all over the country for the next 14 years, she became a social worker and trauma counselor, working with former child soldiers. Amidst the relentless civil war, she never lost hope for a peaceful future and believed in the power of women’s solidarity to broker lasting peace and security. With her leadership, thousands of Liberian women formed a nonviolent movement that brought together Christian and Muslim women, and in 2003 played a pivotal role in ending Liberia’s civil war.

2. Finding strength in community

the issues we’re facing cannot be solve by magic, but we will do our best. I love my community.

When Elena Crasmari, a woman with a disability, wanted to run for a local counselor seat in her home village in rural Moldova, the support from women in her community gave her inspiration and motivation. Elena found allies in women’s organizations and women mentors who helped her on her journey. “Sometimes it is enough to just take a woman by the hand and help her begin her journey,” she said.

Today, as a local counselor, Elena is working to ensure that all parts of her community are accessible to everyone.

3. Not giving up

“No one can stop us. We will speak for our rights and we will bring change through our voice.”

When Malala Yousafzai was 10 years old in Swat Valley, Pakistan, the Taliban took control over her city. Her community was forced to adjust to a new normal that meant living in a place where all cultural activities were prohibited, and girls were banned from going to school. But Malala didn’t give up.

Against all odds, she started speaking up for girls’ right to education. Because of her activism, she quickly became a target for the Taliban, and she was forced to flee her home. After weeks away, she returned home and continued to speak up even louder for girls’ right to go to school. Her campaign grew over the years until the morning of 9 October 2012, when 15-year-old Malala was shot by the Taliban on her way to school. After recovering from the gunshot wound to the head and neck, she picked up her activism. On her 16th birthday in 2013, she appealed to the world from the UN to come together and fight for every girl’s right to education. In 2014 she won the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the youngest Nobel laureate ever.

4. Fighting discrimination

“Believe in yourself and trust yourself.”

Global soccer superstar and UN Women Goodwill ambassador Marta Vieira da Silva started playing soccer when she was just seven years old. In her small town, she was the only girl who played, and was repeatedly told soccer was for boys and that she wasn’t good enough. Marta channeled her frustration onto the pitch, and now plays professional soccer on the global stage and has been named Best FIFA Women’s Player six times, and is an icon and role model for girls around the world.

Related story: She persists: Sport is a tool for empowering girls in Brazil

5. Sticking together

“Women need support from each other to cope with crisis.”

Bangladesh has been hosting Rohingya refugees from Myanmar for more than 30 years. According to UNHCR, as of 15 March 2020, there were 859,161 Rohingya refugees from Myanmar in Bangladesh — the majority of whom are women and girls. Nur Nahar is one of the Rohingya women who found the strength to cope with the crisis through women’s solidarity. She left Myanmar when she was only seven years old and grew up in the refugee camp at Balukhali, Cox’s Bazar. Now in her thirties, she is working as a mentor to newly arriving Rohingya women refugees as part of a UN Women-supported programme.

Related story: Women mobilize to prevent COVID-19 in crowded Rohingya refugee camps

6. Building back better

“We call on the governments of the world to encourage women everywhere to take a more conscious part in international affairs

Following the devastation of World War II, the UN was formed in 1945 “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind”, as the Charter of the United Nations states.

In 1946, Eleanor Roosevelt was appointed as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly and served as the first Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights, playing an instrumental role in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For the first time in human history, the landmark declaration spelled out basic rights and fundamental freedoms that all human beings — men and women alike — should enjoy. During the inaugural session of the UN General Assembly in 1946, Roosevelt read an “open letter to the women of the world”, urging the world to involve women in the international efforts to build a better, peaceful future for all.

7. Finding solutions

Every scientist dreams of doing something that can help the world

Despite the gender bias and underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and math, women innovators and scientists have been pushing the boundaries of scientific knowledge and seeking solutions to complex global challenges every day. Especially now more than ever, the world needs science and science needs women whose contributions are vital in lifesaving research. One such creative mind is the pharmaceutical chemist, Tu Youyou who found a drug to treat malaria from traditional Chinese medicine. With her team, YouYou isolated the ingredient she believed would work and volunteered to be the first human subject. Her discovery of artemisinin, a compound that quickly reduces the number of plasmodium parasites in the blood of patients with malaria, has saved millions of lives.

8. Using a creative outlet

Born in 1907, Mexico City, Mexico, Frida Kahlo had to endure many hardships throughout her life that often confined her to bed, where she used art as a tool to cope with her personal crises. When she was 18, she was in a horrible bus accident that dislocated her spine in several areas, and left her with a lifetime of pain. She had to stay in the hospital for weeks and when she went back home for further recovery, she couldn’t leave her bed for months and could hardly move with a full body cast. That’s when she started painting from her bed on a special easel that her parents made for her to alleviate the boredom and the pain. Despite many more surgeries and treatment attempts, the chronic pain never went away and brought a lot of psychological pain with it. From the accident that changed her life forever to many more challenges that Frida had to face, including three miscarriages, a divorce, and depression, she continued to paint as a form of self-therapy. She painted to fight back, cope and express herself.

9. Overcoming the odds

“At the end of the day, we can endure much more than we think we can.”

Narjis Mohaisen, now 29, lost her eyesight at the age of 13, but didn’t give up her studies. After graduating from university, she has discovered ways to support students with disabilities pursue their dreams. Narjis uses her own experiences in overcoming physical challenges to inspire and encourage others. She is a beneficiary of the Cash for Work project implemented by the Women’s Affairs Centre as part of UN Women’s Protection, Response and Preparedness to Address Needs of Disabled and Vulnerable Women in Gaza programme.

10. Sharing strength by speaking out

“ I could not become one more statistic of a woman who gave up because of this.”

Chinyere Eyoh began Sexual Offences Awareness and Victims Rehabilitation Initiative (SOAR), Nigeria, after surviving multiple sexual assaults throughout her life. When she realized she wasn’t alone in her experience, she decided to speak out to help herself and other women heal. Today, SOAR works to protect young girls and support survivors by establishing safe spaces in schools and by training families, teachers, and traditional and community leaders so that they understand sexual violence is a crime and learn on how to protect children in their communities.

UN Women
UN Women is the United Nations entity for #genderequality and women’s empowerment.

WRITTEN BY: UN Women



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 03, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://medium.com/@UN_Women/ten-things-you-can-learn-from-womens-resilience-that-will-help-you-stay-strong-in-the-time-of-6118b50f9860

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Women in Data Science: Moving from Inclusion to Influence | Knowledge@Wharton

Featured

Data scientists are much in demand. Beyond the domains one might expect — technology, the internet and telecommunications — they are being sought in energy, financial services, manufacturing, healthcare, pharmaceuticals, and other industries, according to recruiting firm Smith Hanley Associates.

But there’s a gender gap. Only 15% to 22% of today’s data science professionals are women, according to recent research from Boston Consulting Group. Moreover, women data analysts tend not to hold managerial roles, comprising only 18% of leadership positions at premier tech companies, according to Forbes. Data science’s appeal is lackluster among female STEM students: In the BCG report, nearly half of them perceived data science to be “overly theoretical and low impact.”

Academic institutions are working to change that. Recently, the University of Pennsylvania hosted its first-annual Women in Data Science conference — WiDS Philadelphia@Penn — to coincide with the annual Global WiDS Conference held at Stanford, and similar events held at approximately 150 colleges and organizations worldwide. The goal of the Penn event, according to the conference organizers — Susan Davidson, computer and information science professor at Penn Engineering; Mary Purk, executive director of Wharton Customer Analytics; and Linda Zhao, Wharton statistics professor — was to “inspire and educate data scientists, regardless of gender, and to support women in the field.” The Penn event was hosted by Analytics at Wharton, Wharton Customer Analytics, Penn Engineering and Wharton Statistics.

An industry panel featured three data analytics leaders from major companies who spoke about their experiences, where the field is headed, and the more general obstacles to working successfully in an area still dauntingly opaque to many businesspeople.

Purk moderated the panel and raised the question of how data scientists in general can play a larger role in terms of a company’s overall goals. To begin with, she asked the panelists: How do you promote business acumen in your teams?

Nicola Blue, vice president at American Express Insights Global Consumer, an analytics and consulting organization within Amex, noted that it’s critical to get her team to work toward actionable results. She called those results the “so what” of any project. “If we’re not focused on the larger environment, we could have the most amazing information in the data, but it won’t have relevance and impact.”

“If we’re not focused on the larger environment, we could have the most amazing information in the data, but it won’t have relevance and impact.” –Nicola Blue

Blue said she coaches her team on being empathetic and understanding the other person’s business needs. “That’s how you get invited back [to meetings and discussions] — showing that you know how to put your expertise into practice.”

KNOWLEDGE@WHARTON HIGH SCHOOL

Rashmi Patil, solutions expert at McKinsey & Company who previously led initiatives at Amazon and Accenture, said it’s important for data analysts to learn the business context they’re working in so they can think holistically. She stated that it would help them build more sophisticated models that would more closely reflect reality and ultimately yield better forecasting and analysis.

Recognizing that all panelists had a business degree, Ginny Too, executive director of customer and marketing insights at Comcast who has also worked at McKinsey, said that in addition to taking some business coursework, budding data scientists should consider regularly reading the business press — even articles not directly of interest to them — to develop a sense of the real-world business community and its concerns. “Read about airlines. Read about why Coke is launching this or that product. Understand KPIs. I think that kind of content — having it in the back of your mind as you’re building out data models — will really be helpful.”

Building Influence

Ideally, a leader in data science would not only contribute to the business’s goals but become an influencer, Purk noted. She asked the panelists to offer advice on achieving influencer status in their organizations.

Too talked about how to interact with colleagues in a way that keeps the data analytics department from being reduced to a mere supplier of numbers. She recounted how she recently got an email asking for a single statistic — ‘How many of X product did we sell last month?’ — to fit into a PowerPoint slide. Too’s reaction was, “Can we talk? Let’s pick up the phone. What are you actually looking for?” It turned out there was a much larger business problem behind the question. Too said that while being helpful is important, it’s also important to “have the wisdom in those moments to … open the aperture to say, ‘What is the problem, and can we solve it together?’” Taking such action also helps give data analytics a seat at the table, she said.

Picking up the influencer theme, Blue talked about going to meetings with the idea of “active listening … to the body language, to what’s being said and not being said, to the tone of the room.” Thinking about those factors can improve how others perceive you and how effectively you can contribute, she noted.

In addition to one’s behavior at meetings, initiating follow-up conversations or sending colleagues relevant articles or analysis helps build one’s reputation as a thoughtful partner who is not just on the execution side of things but has a strategic point of view, Blue said.

During a question-and-answer session, an audience member asked if the panelists thought data analysts should have to justify their models and results to others in the business. She described a recent occurrence at her own company: After delivering a report, she was asked to explain “what’s really going on” and why the model was reliable. “Do you say, ‘OK, let’s break it down for you,’ or, ‘you just have to trust us?’” she asked.

The panelists agreed that in a situation like that it’s best to assume a positive intention and to take it as an opportunity to educate and inform. First, try to understand why the person is asking the question, said Too. “Is it because they’re going to have to be able to explain it to their boss? Or is there something kind of counter-intuitive in your results?”

“There’s so much we now know about our consumers, their journeys and how they interact with us.” –Ginny Too

Blue added, “Having a dialogue is a good thing. Take it as they’re being curious and interested.”

Patil noted that in explaining one’s data model, it’s useful to be upfront about its limitations — for example, to say, “The accuracy one month out is ‘so much,’ but it degrades to ‘this much’ two months out.” This will help those who will be using the data appreciate that it’s a model and can’t cover all cases, she pointed out.

Looking to the Future

Commenting on the future of data analytics, all the panelists noted increasing interest by consumer-facing businesses. “There’s so much we now know about our consumers, their journeys, and how they interact with us,” said Too. “I think consumer-facing businesses will continue to get sharper about this and require more data scientists.”

Another area of growth involves “bringing others into the fold,” according to Blue. She sees an increasing curiosity and desire for understanding about data science among marketers and product managers, partly because of the growing accessibility of technology visualization tools. “There’s more awareness and less intimidation … so people are curious about it, which is exciting to see.”

Blue outlined a scenario in which data scientist leaders would educate their colleagues “so they can appreciate and speak the language,” giving them the confidence to work with data, albeit in a limited way. Companies would still have a center of data excellence or expertise, but not “ring-fence” it.

Reflecting on how the relatively young field has changed over time, Too observed that when she began her data analytics career in the early 2000s, she was using simple Excel spreadsheets. That’s impossible today, she said, because of the scale, granularity and complexity of data that is available. What hasn’t changed, though, are the problems data scientists are asked to solve. “There’s always going to be a focus on how we frame up the question, the business purpose and the level of sophistication with which we can answer it.”



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 03, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/women-data-science-moving-inclusion-influence/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Mae Jemison | The First Black Woman in Space | Beyond Curie

Featured
6/40

Mae Jemison was not only the first black woman to travel in space but also an accomplished engineer and physician. On September 12, 1992, she flew into space on the Shuttle Endeavour for mission STS-47. As mission specialist, she was responsible for conducting scientific experiments exploring weightlessness, motion sickness and bone cells while on the shuttle. Despite NASA’s rigid protocol, she would always begin each shift with a salute that only a Trekkie could appreciate, “hailing frequencies open” she would repeat throughout the 8-day mission. Because of her love of dance, she took an Alvin Ailey poster with her on the mission saying that “science and dance are both expressions of the boundless creativity that people have to share with one another”. She left NASA in 1993 to start the Jemison Group that researches, markets and develops science and technology for daily life.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 03, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.beyondcurie.com/mae-jemison

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Most Powerful Women | Gail Boudreaux | Anthem | Fortune

Featured
  • TITLE: President and CEO
  • AFFILIATION: Anthem
  • AGE: 59

Boudreaux is spear­heading the charge to modernize—and personalize—the health care space. Anthem has released two apps, one of which lets users see their claims history and lab data. On Boudreaux’s watch, Anthem has accelerated the launch of its own pharmacy benefits manager, IngenioRx, migrating customers onto the platform in May. IngenioRx is expected to provide $4 billion of gross pharmacy savings annually, primarily to customers through more affordable health care. Boudreaux has poached several employees from Apple to boost Anthem’s tech push. Rounding out her busy year, the health care vet is overseeing the acquisition of behavioral health organization Beacon Health Options, announced in June.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 03, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://fortune.com/most-powerful-women/2019/gail-boudreaux/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Featured

Security Authentication vs. Authorization: What You Need to Know | Cypress Data Defense

June 02, 2020  By Cypress Data Defense  In Technical

Software terminologies can be confusing. Many words may sound similar but are different aspects of computer security and networking, and sometimes, it’s hard to tell them apart. 

With respect to security systems, the confusion with the terms “authentication” and “authorization” are a classic example. 

They are often incorrectly used interchangeably. 

While they might sound similar, they are two entirely distinct security concepts. 

Developers integrate strong authentication and authorization processes to secure their application from malicious actors. 

There are millions of web applications and services that require authentication to work properly, as most of their services/intents depend upon the action of their users: blogs, forums, shopping carts, collaborative tools, and subscription-based content/services.

However, it’s not the same as authorization.

Security Authentication vs. Authorization: What’s The Difference?

How, exactly, are security authentication and authorization different?

In this section, we will take a closer look at both security authentication and authorization. 

What is Authentication?

Authentication is asserting and proving one’s identity. My identification is “joe_user” (userID) and I can prove I’m Joe because I know Joe’s password (that no one else knows). 

Authentication is the process of validating a user’s identity to grant them access to a system or network. It determines the right of a user to access resources such as services, data servers, networks, databases, files, etc. 

How does a web application provide authentication to users?

Most applications feature a login page where users have to enter their credentials to prove their identity. Those credentials may consist of their user ID, username, email, or phone number and the password associated with it. 

If the credentials provided by the user match the data stored in the application’s database, the user is authenticated and granted access to the application. 

Which Are the Common Authentication Methods?

There are several ways to perform authentication, including one-time passwords, biometrics, authentication apps, hardware tokens, software tokens, and many others. 

One of the most common ways for authentication is passwords – if a user enters the correct password, the system checks the credentials and grants access to the user. 

However, passwords are often targeted by hackers and are vulnerable to cyberattacks, such as brute force attacks, data breaches, man-in-the-middle attacks, and password cracking. 

For this reason, businesses often use other security methods such as two-factor or multi-factor authentication (2FA/MFA) to strengthen security beyond passwords. 

In multi-factor authentication, the system may require the successful verification of more than one factor before granting access to the user. 

What is Authorization?

Once a user is authenticated, the application knows who you are. Authorization then is determining what that user can do within the application (vertical authorization, e.g., does the user have administrator rights or are they a normal user?) and what data do they have access to? (horizontal authorization, Joe User should not be able to access Mary Smith’s data).

Authorization is the process of giving necessary privileges to the user to access specific resources such as files, databases, locations, funds, files, information, almost anything within an application. In simple terms, authorization evaluates a user’s ability to access the system and up to what extent. 

According to the 2019 Global Data Risk Report, nearly 53% of companies found over 1,000 sensitive files open to every employee. 

To maintain strong security, authorization must take place after authentication – where the system validates the user’s identity before it grants access according to their privileges. 

For instance, you might want to allow administrators to view sensitive information but limit third-party suppliers from accessing this sensitive data. Authorization is often used interchangeably with user access control and user privilege. 

Which Are the Different Approaches For Authorization?

When it comes to authorization, you can take different approaches to it. What’s best for you depends on your needs.

Different approaches to authorization include:

  • Token-based: Users are granted a token that stipulates what privileges the user is granted and what data they have access to where the token is cryptographically signed. 
  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): Users are identified as being in a role that stipulates what privileges they have. Additionally, their user ID would restrict what data they have access to.
  • Access Control Lists (ACL): An ACL specifies which users have access to particular resources. For instance, if a user wants to access a specific file or folder, their username or details should be mentioned in the ACL in order to be able to access certain data. 

Businesses often assign privileges and ACLs to users in batches, they might implement “groups” and “roles”, two features that enable the categorization of users and assign access controls and privileges to them based on their organizational standing and job functions. 

Usually, once an authenticated user has access to their account, they are permitted to perform all operations that they’re authorized to do. 

For example, once you log in to your email account, you can view all of your emails, reply to them, delete them, categorize them, modify your personal information, and do other email-related tasks. 

However, if a user wishes to perform a particularly sensitive operation, they might need to take additional steps to authorize the request. 

For instance, if a user is trying to make a payment, they might have to re-enter their password, or repeat the authentication process, to validate their identity again. 

In secure environments, some applications might use such precautionary authorization methods if they observe unusual user behavior, like an IP address, or an unusual time of login, or an attempt to make a high-value transaction. 

This is to ensure that only authorized users have access to their account and prove that their account hasn’t been hijacked or compromised by a malicious actor. 

Authentication vs. Authorization: An Example

Still not clear about the differences between authentication and authorization?

A real-world example can help you understand the differences between authentication and authorization better.

Let’s say, for instance, you want to access your bank account online.

If you need to login to your banking application, you must have the credentials for your account. If you enter the correct username and password, you can gain access to your account. The application only grants access to a user who has the correct credentials. 

This is authentication.

If you forgot your password, they may ask you some security questions that only you know, or they may email you a password reset token. 

This is also authentication. 

Once you have successfully logged in your user account, you can access your profile, download your bank statement, make transactions, and do many other banking-related activities. All of these activities are authorized. You are granted the privilege to perform them.

Now, let’s suppose you want to access a premium service on your account. While you can gain access to your account (authentication) and avail services, you might not be allowed (authorized) to access premium services. 

In such cases, the application will check your user privileges in the back-end database and only allow you to use them if you have the right to access those premium services. 

Takeaways

Authentication and authorization are two strong pillars of cybersecurity that protect data from potential cyberattacks. 

Authentication is the process of verifying if a user is who they claim to be by checking their credentials. Authorization is the method of checking the privileges of a user and granting access to only specific resources. 

In a nutshell, both authentication and authorization are crucial but one is not a substitute for the other.

Think of authentication and authorization as complementary systems, and you need both.

Ideally, you should implement authentication and authorization in your security systems. That’s the best way to ensure that your systems and networks are properly secured.

If you want to conduct a cybersecurity audit or a code review, get in touch with us.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 03, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://cypressdatadefense.com/blog/security-authentication-vs-authorization/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Most Powerful Women | Ginni Rometty | IBM | Fortune

Featured
  • TITLE: Chairman, President, and CEO
  • AFFILIATION: IBM
  • AGE: 62

Most Powerful Women: Ginni Rometty She’s the Chairman, President, and CEO of IBM. https://imasdk.googleapis.com/js/core/bridge3.387.1_en.html#goog_1184125029

IBM’s $34 billion purchase of enterprise software company Red Hat is not only Big Blue’s biggest deal ever but one of the largest tech deals of all time. Rometty is pitching the acquisition as key to IBM’s “hybrid cloud strategy,” in which clients manage their infrastructure in both internal data centers and the cloud. The deal could define Rometty’s tenure, which has seen sales shrink 20% over five years to $79.6 billion.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 02, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://fortune.com/most-powerful-women/2019/ginni-rometty/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments…



Ada Lovelace | The World’s First Computer Programmer | Beyond Curie

Featured
5/40

Ada Lovelace was a countess, English mathematician and writer, most recognized for her work on Charles Babbage’s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She is regarded as the world’s first computer programmer for her publication in 1843, suggesting the data input that would program the Analytic Machine to calculate Bernoulli numbers, now considered the first computer program. Babbage was so impressed, he dubbed her the “Enchantress of Numbers”.

Beyond understanding the intricacies of Babbage’s machine, Ada Lovelace was a visionary. She predicted what would happen 100 years in the future, that machines like the Analytical Engine could be used to compose music, create graphics, and would be vital for scientific progress. She understood that numbers could be used to represent so much more than just quantities. Lovelace became a brilliant mathematician, thanks in part to opportunities that were denied most women of the time. Born into aristocracy, the daughter of famous poet Lord Byron and Anne Isabella Milbanke, she was already destined for the history books. But her curiosity about how society relates to technology as a collaborative tool and contributions to the field of mathematics made her a pioneer.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 02, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.beyondcurie.com/ada-lovelace

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



5 Economists Redefining… Everything. Oh Yes, And They’re Women | Avivah Wittenberg-Cox | Forbes

Featured

Avivah Wittenberg-Cox Contributor

Careers

She writes about creating gender-balanced countries, companies & couples.

Five female economists.
From top left: Mariana Mazzucato, Carlota Perez, Kate Raworth, Stephanie Kelton, Esther Duflo. 20-FIRST

Few economists become household names. Last century, it was John Maynard Keynes or Milton Friedman. Today, Thomas Piketty has become the economists’ poster-boy. Yet listen to the buzz, and it is five female economists who deserve our attention. They are revolutionising their field by questioning the meaning of everything from ‘value’ and ‘debt’ to ‘growth’ and ‘GDP.’ Esther Duflo, Stephanie Kelton, Mariana Mazzucato, Carlota Perez and Kate Raworth are united in one thing: their amazement at the way economics has been defined and debated to date. Their incredulity is palpable. 

It reminds me of many women I’ve seen emerge into power over the past decade. Like Rebecca Henderson, a Management and Strategy professor at Harvard Business School and author of the new Reimagining Capitalism in a World on Fire. “It’s odd to finally make it to the inner circle,” she says, “and discover just how strangely the world is being run.” When women finally make it to the pinnacle of many professions, they often discover a world more wart-covered frog than handsome prince. Like Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz, when they get a glimpse behind the curtain, they discover the machinery of power can be more bluster than substance. As newcomers to the game, they can often see this more clearly than the long-term players. Henderson cites Tom Toro’s cartoon as her mantra. A group in rags sit around a fire with the ruins of civilisation in the background. “Yes, the planet got destroyed” says a man in a disheveled suit, “but for a beautiful moment in time we created a lot of value for shareholders.”

You get the same sense when you listen to the female economists throwing themselves into the still very male dominated economics field. A kind of collective ‘you’re kidding me, right? These five female economists are letting the secret out – and inviting people to flip the priorities. A growing number are listening – even the Pope (see below).

All question concepts long considered sacrosanct. Here are four messages they share:

Get Over It – Challenge the Orthodoxy

Described as “one of the most forward-thinking economists of our times,” Mariana Mazzucato is foremost among the flame throwers.  A professor at University College London and the Founder/Director of the UCL Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose, she asks fundamental questions about how ‘value’ has been defined, who decides what that means, and who gets to measure it. Her TED talk, provocatively titled “What is economic value? And who creates it?”lays down the gauntlet. If some people are value creators,” she asks, what does that make everyone else? “The couch potatoes? The value extractors? The value destroyers?” She wants to make economics explicitly serve the people, rather than explain their servitude.

Stephanie Kelton takes on our approach to debt and spoofs the simplistic metaphors, like comparing national income and expenditure to ‘family budgets’ in an attempt to prove how dangerous debt is. In her upcoming book, The Deficit Myth (June 2020), she argues they are not at all similar; what household can print additional money, or set interest rates? Debt should be rebranded as a strategic investment in the future. Deficits can be used in ways good or bad but are themselves a neutral and powerful policy tool. “They can fund unjust wars that destabilize the world and cost millions their lives,” she writes, “or they can be used to sustain life and build a more just economy that works for the many and not just the few.” Like all the economists profiled here, she’s pointing at the mind and the meaning behind the money. 

Get Green Growth – Reshaping Growth Beyond GDP

Kate Raworth, a Senior Research Associate at Oxford University’s Environmental Change Institute, is the author of Doughnut Economics. She challenges our obsession with growth, and its outdated measures. The concept of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), was created in the 1930s and is being applied in the 21st century to an economy ten times larger. GDP’s limited scope (eg. ignoring the value of unpaid labour like housework and parenting or making no distinction between revenues from weapons or water) has kept us “financially, politically and socially addicted to growth” without integrating its costs on people and planet. She is pushing for new visual maps and metaphors to represent sustainable growth that doesn’t compromise future generations. What this means is moving away from the linear, upward moving line of ‘progress’ ingrained in us all, to a “regenerative and distributive” model designed to engage everyone and shaped like … a doughnut (food and babies figure prominently in these women’s metaphors). 

Carlota Perez doesn’t want to stop or slow growth, she wants to dematerialize it. “Green won’t spread by guilt and fear, we need aspiration and desire,” she says. Her push is towards a redefinition of the ‘good life’ and the need for “smart green growth” to be fuelled by a desire for new, attractive and aspirational lifestyles. Lives will be built on a circular economy that multiplies services and intangibles which offer limitless (and less environmentally harmful) growth. She points to every technological revolution creating new lifestyles. She says we can see it emerging, as it has in the past, among the educated, the wealthy and the young: more services rather than more things, active and creative work, a focus on health and care, a move to solar power, intense use of the internet, a preference for customisation over conformity, renting vs owning, and recycling over waste. As these new lifestyles become widespread, they offer immense opportunities for innovation and new jobs to service them.

Get Good Government – The Strategic Role of the State

All these economists want the state to play a major role. Women understand viscerally how reliant the underdogs of any system are on the inclusivity of the rules of the game. “It shapes the context to create a positive sum game” for both the public and business, says Perez. You need an active state to “tilt the playing field toward social good.” Perez outlines five technological revolutions, starting with the industrial one. She suggests we’re halfway through the fifth, the age of Tech & Information. Studying the repetitive arcs of each revolution enables us to see the opportunity of the extraordinary moment we are in. It’s the moment to shape the future for centuries to come. But she balances economic sustainability with the need for social sustainability, warning that one without the other is asking for trouble.

Mariana Mazzucato challenges governments to be more ambitious. They gain confidence and public trust by remembering and communicating what they are there to do. In her mind that is ensuring the public good. This takes vision and strategy, two ingredients she says are too often sorely lacking. Especially post-COVID, purpose needs to be the driver determining the ‘directionality’ of focus, investments and public/ private partnerships. Governments should be using their power – both of investment and procurement – to orient efforts towards the big challenges on our horizon, not just the immediate short-term recovery. They should be putting conditions on the massive financial bail outs they are currently handing out. She points to the contrast in imagination and impact between airline bailouts in Austria and the UK. The Austrian airlines are getting government aid on the condition they meet agreed emissions targets. The UK is supporting airlines without any conditionality, a huge missed opportunity to move towards larger, broader goals of building a better and greener economy out of the crisis.

Get Real – Beyond the Formulae and Into the Field

All of these economists also argue for getting out of the theories and into the field. They reject the idea of nerdy theoretical calculations done within the confines of a university tower and challenge economists to experiment and test their formulae in the real world. 

Esther Duflo, Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at MIT, is the major proponent of bringing what is accepted practice in medicine to the field of economics: field trials with randomised control groups. She rails against the billions poured into aid without any actual understanding or measurement of the returns. She gently accuses us of being no better with our 21st century approaches to problems like immunisation, education or malaria than any medieval doctor, throwing money and solutions at things with no idea of their impact. She and her husband, Abhijit Banerjee, have pioneered randomised control trials across hundreds of locations in different countries of the world, winning a Nobel Prize for Economics in 2019 for the insights. 

They test, for example, how to get people to use bed nets against malaria. Nets are a highly effective preventive measure but getting people to acquire and use them has been a hard nut to crack. Duflo set up experiments to answer the conundrums: If people have to pay for nets, will they value them more? If they are free, will they use them? If they get them free once, will this discourage future purchases? As it turns out, based on these comparisons, take-up is best if nets are initially given, “people don’t get used to handouts, they get used to nets,” and will buy them – and use them – once they understand their effectiveness. Hence, she concludes, we can target policy and money towards impact.

Mazzucato is also hands-on with a number of governments around the world, including Denmark, the UK, Austria, South Africa and even the Vatican, where she has just signed up for weekly calls contributing to a post-Covid policy. ‘I believe [her vision] can help to think about the future,’ Pope Francis said after reading her book, The Value of Everything: Making and Taking in the Global Economy. No one can accuse her of being stuck in an ivory tower. Like Duflo, she is elbow-deep in creating new answers to seemingly intractable problems. 

She warns that we don’t want to go back to normal after Covid-19. Normal was what got us here. Instead, she invites governments to use the crisis to embed ‘directionality’ towards more equitable public good into their recovery strategies and investments. Her approach is to define ambitious ‘missions’ which can focus minds and bring together broad coalitions of stakeholders to create solutions to support them. The original NASA mission to the moon is an obvious precursor model. Why, anyone listening to her comes away thinking, did we forget purpose in our public spending? And why, when so much commercial innovation and profit has grown out of government basic research spending, don’t a greater share of the fruits of success return to promote the greater good?

Economics has long remained a stubbornly male domain and men continue to dominate mainstream thinking. Yet, over time, ideas once considered without value become increasingly visible. The move from outlandish to acceptable to policy is often accelerated by crisis. Emerging from this crisis, five smart economists are offering an innovative range of new ideas about a greener, healthier and more inclusive way forward. Oh, and they happen to be women.

Avivah Wittenberg-Cox She is CEO of 20-first, a global gender-balance consultancy. She works with C-suite teams to achieve real gender balance by reframing the issue: on leadership, culture and systems. She facilitates politically incorrect debates that get leaders defining the strategic business opportunities of balance (and risks of not balancing). She has written a number of books, including “Seven Steps to Leading Gender-Balanced Businesses,” and “Why Women Mean Business: Understanding the Emergence of Our Next Economic Revolution.” She speaks on leadership, ‘gender bilingual’ marketing and talent management, and career issues across the globe, write for FORBES and Harvard Business Review. She believes gender balance offers companies, countries and couples huge – and still untapped – benefits. What are you waiting for? 

Follow her on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out her website or some of her other work here



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 01, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/avivahwittenbergcox/2020/05/31/5-economists-redefining-everything–oh-yes-and-theyre-women/#2fa7cb88714a

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Margaret Ann Bulkley | Surgeon | Medical Pioneer

Featured

A woman ahead of her time, who pretended to be a man to pursue a career where she was not welcome

4/40

Margaret Ann Bulkley was a war hero, a medical pioneer, and defied all odds to become a brilliant surgeon. Born in a time when women were not permitted to pursue medicine, she disguised herself as a boy and never looked back. After graduating from medical school she enlisted in the British military. She crafted the swashbuckling, flirtatious, “ladies’ man” persona of Dr. James Barry to avoid suspicion as she practiced medicine all over the British Empire. While in Cape Town, in 1826, she performed the first successful Caesarean section by a European doctor. In 1866, a future prime minister of South Africa was named James Barry Munnik Hertzog in her honor. She rose through the ranks of the British military to become the Inspector-General of Hospitals. She was a public health advocate who fought for better nutrition, sanitation and care for prisoners, lepers, soldiers and their families.

Only after she died, did anyone discover her secret. The scandal rocked the Victorian establishment, and the army placed an embargo on James Barry’s military record for a hundred years. Margaret Ann Bulkley could have stayed home, married and had kids. But she was determined to become a doctor even if it meant living a lie. She was not only the first British woman to graduate in medicine but also one of the day’s most infamous and respected surgeons.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 01, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://www.beyondcurie.com/margaret-ann-bulkley

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments… 



Most Powerful Women | Mary Barra

Featured
  • TITLE: Chairman and CEO
  • AFFILIATION: General Motors
  • AGE: 57

GM’s sales flatlined in 2018, but Barra made some shrewd moves to position America’s largest automaker for future success. While the trade war has brought sluggish demand from China, GM is leaning into pickup trucks, which have been selling well in the U.S. Barra is pushing forward with her grand plan to have 20 new electric-vehicle models on the market by 2023. GM debuted Cadillac’s first all-electric car in January. Her latest challenge: Facing the longest nationwide strike against GM in nearly 50 years.



Disclosure: Smita Nair Jain has nothing to disclose. She doesn’t own stock in any publicly traded companies and does not hold investments in the technology companies. She has equivalent of the American 401(k) plan in India that is automatically managed. (Updated: June 01, 2020)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs and viewpoints expressed by the various author(s), publisher(s) and forum participant(s) on this web site do not necessarily reflect the opinions, beliefs and viewpoints of the @SmitaNairJain or official policies of the #SmitaNairJain

Source: https://fortune.com/most-powerful-women/2019/mary-barra/

In This Article (Categories, Tags and Hashtags): #WomenWhoLead #WomenWhoCode #WomenSupportingWomen #WomensAgenda #WomenPower #WomenLeadTheWay #WomenInTechnology #WomenInTech #WomenInSTEM #WomenInScience #WomenInSales #WomenInMedicine #WomenInMath #WomenInLeadership #WomenInEngineering #WomenInDigital #WomenInConstruction #WomenInBusiness #WomenInArtificialIntelligence #WomeninAI #WomenInAG #WomenHelpingWomen #WomenEmpowerment #WhoRunTheWorld #Inclusion #GenderEquality #Equity #Diversity

Stay Connected (Take A Minute To Follow Me On Social Media) 

Facebook: @SmitaNairJainPage  Twitter: @SmitaNairJain  Instagram: @smita.nair.jain   LinkedIn: @smitanairjain

Want to contribute to this story? Share your addition in comments…